Term papers: Speech and Society
Berlo (1960) demonstrated that the rules of verbal behavior are regulated by the speech etiquette, by the system, prevailing in language and speech, of fixed expressions used in situations of establishing and maintaining contact. These are situations of treatment, greetings, farewells, apologies, thanks, congratulations, wishes, sympathy and condolences, approval and compliments, invitations, suggestions, requests for the advice and many others. The speech etiquette embraces everything that is friendly to the other party, that can create good and pleasant climate of communication. Rich set of language features allows you to choose the pertinent for the speech situation and a favorable for the interlocutor form of communication, establish a friendly, relaxed, or on the contrary, an official tone of conversation.
It is important to emphasize that in the speech etiquette the social information is transmitted to the speaker and his addressee, if they are familiar or not, about the relationship of equality / inequality by age, occupation, their personal relationships (if they are familiar), about in what environment (formal or informal) the communication takes place, etc.
Of course, it is necessary to study the speech etiquette in the study of foreign languages, but one must also know his own etiquette, and it needs to be tought from the early childhood, in the family, kindergarten, school, and in high school, already professionally orienting a person in accordance with what speech situations will be the most typical in the workplace of the person.
Oratory is an art of a practical verbal effects, giving us the opportunity to use skillfully the word as a tool of thought and persuasion. The field for the rhetorical activity is immense: how to organize the speech for the teachers? How to make a declaration of love? how to speak in parliament? On these and many other questions the science forgotten in the country and in need of rehabilitation – rhetoric, should answer. For many centuries it was the norm of culture, one of the classical humanitarian disciplines, studying the person acting with speech and recommending the rules of clever, expedient and persuasive speech. term papers
What was the impetus for the revival of rhetoric and stepped the attention to it? It should be noted that today the named items have become popular in many colleges and universities. Miller (2001) admitted that the fact is that in recent decades the communicational, and accordingly, the language situation in society has dramatically changed. There are new ways of storing and processing verbal information, where the auditory and audiovisual sources of speech became to dominate (radio, television, telephone), ie, the speech in its absolutely new variations. The visual sources of speech acquired new qualities, greatly expanding and enriching the situational-thematical areas of the application of written speech (eg, writing functioning in a computer). And if until recent times the problems of the formation of language skills were relevant, as a rule, for the professions associated with the so-called humanities, and for teaching a foreign language, now almost in front of the entire system of education the task of developing of skills and abilities of the oral tradition is faced.
Today, it is important not only to be able to construct the oral statement, convincingly defending the own position (of course, with the respect to the rules of the speech communication), but also to be able to understand another’s speech and adequately react at it.
And if at the contact communication the listener may regulate the rate of the new information, reasking the interlocutor (lecturer), asking him to speak more slowly, to comment on some statements that are not very clear, at a distant perception of the speech (radio, television) this is not possible. Conley (1990) stated that the listener is forced to perceive it at a speed, linguistic design and volume that do not take into account his individual capacity.
In connection with this we should recall that the ancient rhetoric, focused mainly on legal and parade speeches, was redeveloped in the Middle Ages, based chiefly on the composition of letters and sermons, and in the Renaissance and Classicism it was applicable with respect to any art prose.
Unfortunately, the modern rhetoric by its content and methods used – remains at approximately the same level as that of a century ago. It does not take into account, firstly, the new challenges and historical realities, and secondly, the results of research in related disciplines such as data of linguodidactics about the temporal characteristics of speech and the optimal duration of the sound of texts in different situations and with different sources of information, the data of linguistics about the specifics of the lexical grammatical design of ideas in different situations of communication. But the similar information obtained as a result of scientific research investigations, has been successfully used by the experts in the field of learning of languages.
Leave a Reply
You must be logged in to post a comment.