Obviously, the establishment of ethical norms and standards is very important and, in order to define ethical standards which meet actual needs of the personnel of the organization, it is necessary to involve both clinical and non-clinical staff in the elaboration of basic ethical norms and principles. What is meant here is the fact that it is possible to organize questionnaires and interviews to identify fundamental ethical norms and principles which are important to professionals employed within the Great Healthcare Medical Center. In this respect, it is possible to single out several norms and principles which be included in the Code of Ethics. First of all, it is important to introduce the principle of tolerance, which implies that each employee, his or her rights, liberties, beliefs and personal views should be respected regardless of his or her status within the organization, age, gender and qualification. Secondly, it is necessary to prevent the problem of sexual harassment that can be done through the establishment of professionalism as the major principle of the work of both clinical and non-clinical staff. This principles implies that relationships between employees are grounded on sheer professional ground, while personal relationships cannot be developed within the organizations. Consequently, any attempts of sexual advances would be viewed as the violation of the Code of Ethics because they definitely go far beyond professional relations of employees. In addition, this principle regulates the relationships between employees and prevents them from the development of close personal relationships which naturally affect their performance and provoke such problems as the problem of sexual harassment. Furthermore, it is important to introduce the principle of respecting the opinion of the majority of the personnel. This means that the behavior which is defined by the majority of the personnel as unethical is unacceptable within the organization, while individual employees should have got a possibility to complaint in regard to offensive behavior from the part of managers or other employees. (more…)
Posts Tagged ‘Ethics’
Today, the functioning of health care organizations is closely intertwined with professional ethics, which is an essential part of the work of health care professionals. In this respect, it should be said that many organizations face the problem of the violation of ethical norms and principles, which are closely intertwined with legal issues. In such a situation, the risk of internal conflicts arises because the violation of ethical norms and principles inevitably leads to conflicts between people. At this point it is possible to refer to the example of the Great Healthcare Medical Center, Manhattan, the New York City. The employees of the healthcare center suffer from a systematic abuse of ethical norms and principles, which naturally affect the performance of employees as well as the organizational performance at large. At the same time, the problem is that the Great Healthcare Medical Center does not have the Code of Ethics, which could have regulated the relationships between professionals employed within the organization and, therefore, contribute to the formation of a positive organizational culture, where ethical and moral norms are respected by all employees.
First of all, it is necessary to start with the analysis of the current situation in the Great Healthcare Medical Center. In this respect, it should be said that one of the major problems within the organization is the problem of the unethical behavior of physicians in relation to female staff members. To put it more precisely, numerous reports made by female staff concerning sexual harassment from the part of male physicians prove the fact that the Great Healthcare Medical Center is vulnerable to the problem of sexual harassment as one of the major challenges to the rights and moral values of female employees as well as the organization at large. In other words, such a behavior from the part of the male physicians of the medical center is unacceptable. In addition, both clinical and non-clinical staff reported on the unethical behavior of some managers and supervisors that naturally undermines normal interpersonal relationships within the organization. Obviously, all these problems clearly reveal the burning need in the development of the Code of Ethics, which could regulate ethical issues and clearly define basic ethical and moral norms and principles that should regulate the work of the personnel and the functioning of the Great Healthcare Medical Center. (more…)
The trends of humanization of management lead to the increase of leaders’ attention towards intangible assets of a company, and in particular to its social capital, i.e. to the relations existing within an organization, to the level of trust, and to the quality of organization’s socio-psychological climate.
According to researches, “honesty” is most often reported as a quality, which employees wish to see in their colleagues and top-managers (Brown 125-135). Thus, if ethical leadership is understood as creation and implementation of effective capacities through noble means, nobleness means the adherence of a leader to universal human values in the choice of means of achieving goals. Ethical conduct can’t include manipulations: refusal of manipulation is accompanied by the establishment of partnership relations with employees, stakeholders, suppliers, internal and external clients of the company, the state, sponsors, environmental community, etc.
Ethical leadership is characterized by several significant mechanisms of influence. It is important to mark here that ethical leadership is based on authority rather than on power. The sources of power usually include compulsion and punishment, and the strength of power depends on the degree of these parameters. From our point of view, power rather belongs to institutional phenomena; there is always a possibility of its purchase or inheritance, while the authority is an intrapersonal formation. The authority which an ethical leader has is acquired through the realization of proclaimed values in the factual behavior. The authority cannot be transferred or inherited, it can only be earned. (more…)
In recent years, the issues of ethics, morality, ethical standards and social responsibility of organizations towards society, government and employees have become very popular. Questions are increasingly asked whether there is a system of universal moral code and rules of social behavior in business, and whether companies can disregard these rules. In our opinion, it is impossible not to focus sufficient attention on morality in the world, where corporate scandals involving influential businessmen who neglect the meaning of “honesty” and “ethics”, are becoming a typical event. This could be a specific signal of the increasing need of the society for the development of ethical consciousness. The formation of this need involves the emergence of a new type of leadership – an ethical one.
Surely, this raises an obvious question concerning the border line that separates ethical leadership from other types of leadership and, actually, what features identify whether the leadership is ethical or not. (more…)
The problem of relevance of individual morals and ethical norms accepted in the society was always one of the main theme discussed by philosophers and thinkers living in different countries, in different epochs. In fact, the relevance between individual moral views and social ethics is very important because often individual morals have to deal with ethics commonly accepted in the society that often leads to internal contradictions to the extent that the very sense of life is getting lost. In this respect, the works and views of such philosophers as Socrates, Leo Tolstoy are extremely important since they reveal to a significant extent different models of behavior, notably in “Apology” and “The Death of Ivan Illych”, though it would be a great mistake to believe that this problem disturbed European philosophers only, since it is possible to trace similar arguments in the works of Confucius and Lao Tzu.
On analyzing the work and ideas of Socrates and Leo Tolstoy it is possible to estimate that they are similar and different at the same time. In fact both philosophers deal with the similar problems the problem of contradiction between individual morals and socially accepted ethical norms. However, the treatment, or to put it more precisely the realization of this contradiction is different in regards of Socrates and Tolstoy.
In this respect, it is worthy to note that the position of Socrates is characterized by openness, boldness and even some stubbornness. The reason for such a conclusion is quite obvious since it is not a secret that Socrates openly declared his ideas and beliefs without any apprehension of social prejudices or even punishment. Moreover, it is because of his views that were totally rejected by the ruling elite of Athens he was eventually sentenced to death, being accused in the corrupting of youth, and disbelief in divine. Nonetheless, he did not refused from his views and kept his work going until the trial and his execution. It is worthy to note that his ideas and actions were widely discussed, including literary works such as “Apology” by Xenophon and Plato. At the same time, such a position of Socrates indicates at his strong belief in the necessity to put individual morals higher than any social prejudices and even ethics. In other words, he stands on the ground that individual freedom, individual position and moral are more important for a person than the social reaction even if it is motivated by some ethical norms accepted within society. (more…)
Today, the copyright law in the UK needs substantial changes to be introduced to meet new challenges determined by the emergence of new information technologies, internet and telecommunication systems. At the same time, the existing legislation concerning copyright provides the ground for the development of an effective copyright law which has to be extended to the internet, e-business and other fields which have appeared in the result of the development of new information technologies and telecommunication systems. On the other hand, the existing regulations have already proved their effectiveness in regard to conventional fields, where copyright law is traditionally applied. The UK is one of the countries, where the copyright law protects intellectual property rights effectively and minimizes the risk of the unauthorized use of private information or intellectual property rights without the consent from the part of the owner of intellectual property rights. In such a situation, the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act of 1988, which is the fundamental legal act defining and regulating copyright, refers mainly to conventional scope of copyright regulations but it fails to provide the efficient protection of copyright and intellectual property rights, when information technologies and modern telecommunication systems are involved. In this respect, it is possible to refer to the case of Napster, which was alleged to violate copyright law for Napster provided users with the possibility to download music for free without authorization from the part of intellectual rights owners. This case is quite noteworthy because it reveals the full extent to which the existing copyright law is imperfect and needs consistent improvements to ensure the full protection of copyright and intellectual property rights in the UK. (more…)
In actuality, it is very difficult to choose between the fulfillment of the project in time and the quality of the machine created. In this regard, Roy has to choose between the two options and this choice should be grounded on the analysis of the prospects of either decision being taken by Roy. Obviously, it is up to Roy to choose but it is important to place emphasis on the fact that he is choosing between his personal benefits and the effects of the machine he creates on consumers. In other words, he chooses between personal good and public good. In this regard, it is possible to recommend Roy to make a decision in favor of the public good and to postpone the accomplishment of the project but to use new parts of machines.
On analyzing the case of Roy, it is worth mentioning the fact that he cannot complete the project in time, if he waits for new parts of machines to arrive. Nevertheless, it is important to understand that new parts are crucial for the quality and reliability of machines. In such a context, Roy has to choose. To make the right choice, Roy has to consider effects of either choice. To put it more precisely, if he chooses to use old parts and complete the project in time, he will definitely succeed as the vice-president because the company will supply the machines respectively to the agreement with the customer. On the other hand, the quality of the machines will be low because old parts are not as good and reliable as new ones. Therefore, Roy will have problems with the effectiveness and reliability of machines he, as the vice-president allows to supply to his customer. (more…)
Write brief descriptions for each of the following terms. If you use an outside source to define them, include an APA citation for the source.
|Scientific method||is a collection of basic ways to acquire new knowledge and methods for solving problems in any science.|
|Environmental science||is an interdisciplinary scientific field that combines not only biological, but also physical sciences, (including biology, physics, soil science, chemistry, geology, and geography) with an aim to study the environment, and to find a proper solution of environmental problems.|
|Anthropocentrism||the doctrine that person is the center of the universe and the purpose of all events occurring in the world.|
|Biocentrism||ideology, philosophy or a scientific approach in the environmental science, placing above all the interests of wildlife in the form in which they are presented to a human.|
|Dualism||philosophical doctrine, proceeding from the recognition of equal rights of two irredundant to each other principles – spirit and substance, ideal and material.|
|Ecocentrism||ideology of environmental protection that considers the preservation of wildlife, as intrinsic value, regardless of any criteria for human use, and perceived priority of this value over the goals and needs of humanity.|
|Ecology||synthetic, biological science about relationships between living organisms and their environment.|
|Ecophilosophy||is a variety of philosophies interested in nature, animals and whole environment.|
|Ethics||philosophical doctrine, which has a moral as the subject and good and evil as its central problems.|
|Hedonism||type of ethical studies and moral beliefs, in which all moral conclusions appear from pleasure and pain.|
|Holism||idealistic theory, which considers the world as a result of stepwise evolution, guided intangible and unknowable “factor in the integrity”.|
|Individualism||type of ideology, the essence of which is ultimately absolutization of the position of an individual in his opposition to society, not to any particular social order, but to the society in general.|
|Materialism||philosophical direction, according to which matter, material substance is ontologically primary principle, and the ideal (the concept, spirit, etc.) – secondary.|
|Metaphysical||related to metaphysics, standing above any possible experience and highly abstract, subtle, or abstruse.|
|Minimalism||minimalism in ecology defines not in terms of form and shape, but in terms of minimal ecological impact and intervention into the natural processes and patterns with an aim to get maximum benefit.|
|Monism||consideration of the manifold phenomena of the world in the light of a beginning, it is a common basis of all existence.|
|Ethical extensionism||According to Des Jardins (2006) it is “a term based on the idea of extending moral standing to things (animals, plants, species, the earth) that traditionally are not thought of as having moral standing.”|
|Pluralism||position that there are several or many independent and irreducible to each other fundamentals, or species of being.|
|Naturalism||philosophical direction, which regards nature as a universal principle of explanation of all things, and often openly includes the concept of “nature” as the spirit.|
|Normative||establishing norms, standards, defining the rules.|
|Pragmatic||reliable, in fact-based and directly applicable to the case.|
|Relativism||idealistic doctrine of the relativity, conventionality and the subjectivity of human cognition.|
|Utilitarian||commensurate only with the practical use or benefit; practical, applied.|
|Environmental justice||equal distribution of the right to environmental security between the people, while each is charged with the responsibility for its preservation.|
|Fossil fuels||are fuels formed by natural resources that could consist of anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms.|
|Renewable energy||is an energy from sources that are inexhaustible on a human scale.|
|Environmental Schools of Thought||Write 350- to 700-words below in which you select two of the following environmental schools of thought found among the terms in the worksheet. The environmental schools of thought are:
Explain how your chosen two schools of thought view a local environmental issue differently. Be sure to address any ethical concerns or controversies surrounding this environmental issue. (more…)