Referral and networking with other services
The drug and alcohol advisor in Shepparton focused on positive relationships with GP’s as being important potential barriers:
“Look we’ve…we’ve got our own GP, which certainly makes it a lot easier. We ah we ah have our own GP, which is certainly made our life very, very comfortable….let me tell you umm ah but with not all our clients, see our doctor obviously….so umm the level of umm cooperation could improve so if if we don’t have an existing relationship with their GP….what we encourage them to do and what we do is we will write to their GP….and just request ss you know the services, articulate in writing, what they may feel a bit uncomfortable saying…… and that’s with we’ve never had any umm one say, “well the doctor didn’t even read your letter or there’s, there’s never had a problem there ….but we are strengthening our ties…with the with the, the doctors….and partly because we have a doctor of our own….and there’s a sense of…..so there’s, there’s a there’s communication between them so that’s yeah…yes, we do, that’s done through umm PCP, the primary care partnerships…..yeah and the GVGPs they work very closely together and we’re we’ve ah have a PCP sitting in sitting in our building so we’ve got a good relationship with them and they certainly open doors and, and support any relationship with other doctors.”
The close cooperation between drug alcohol advisors and general practitioners is very important because they work with clients, who are often unwilling to use their services. At the same time, they elaborate their own strategies of the development of close cooperation with clients and attraction of clients to provide them with essential health care services. Drug and alcohol advisors and general practitioners can share their experience and cooperate with each other that will increase the effectiveness of their performance. (more…)
Posts Tagged ‘alcohol’
Referral and networking with other services
Buy an essay on Other barriers to access for the young men in accessing sexual health, drug and alcohol related services
The notion that young people in rural Australia have clearly defined barriers when trying to access healthcare is, of course, not a new phenomenon. One of many example may be given – The Sexual Health Factsheet (2008, p. 1) – which lists the most obvious. These include a fundamental lack of services, a limited choice of health providers, an over-reliance on overseas doctors who often have conservative attitudes towards sexual matters, long waiting times to see a GP, lack of public transport and a lack of information concerning contraception, same sex relationships and a lack of knowledge concerning the services that are available. With these points in mind, I enquired about these issues to the health professionals to find out at what extent these act as barriers for the young men in accessing sexual health, drug and alcohol related services.
The General Practitioner from Numurkah added to the issues by noting the issues of being embedded in the community as well as the elusive but important factors of trust and stigmas:
“I think, in our locality we are new service. so that they don’t trust us, or there is a misbelief that in our particular region we r just here for people with mental health issues so i think unfortunately we have got a bit of stigma about health service. but i think also, They think they are invincible, nothing gone hurt them. They don’t need to see any one. They don’t understand that these things are important and will catch up with them in the end.”
Sexual health nurse from Numurkah also endorsed what GP mentioned regarding their services. She did recall one comment by a particularly young man:
“I heard one comment….umm in the community…..it was, I’ve only heard it once but that ‘this is where the mental kids go.’ “
The youth worker in Ballarat talked about such stigmas in a different but from an interesting angle:
“I suppose within some of the community there’s still that perception that if I’m talking about gay issues then I’m trying to turn someone gay……there’s still that whole, we’re recruiting almost do you know what I mean? So umm it’s (e it’s) sort of a battle (umm) to try and break down some of the barriers that the older generation have held onto that umm yeah that that crap that that umm if you talk about you know the taboo subjects that potentially you know you’re trying to recruit someone to be in your cult, gay cult like it’s a disease or something but we’ve small….small steps ah and Ballarat is slowly changing ah but we’re still very behind a lot of the metropolitan areas umm but we do what we can…….with what we’ve got.”
The older generation has a biased attitude toward sexual health and life and, especially to sexual minorities. Their biased views affect the younger generation too because young people raise up in conservative communities and, since the early childhood, they have learned biases and stereotypes in relation to the sexual life from the older generation. As a result, these biases and stereotypes make the youth unaware of the importance of sexual health and the ways of maintenance of sexual health. Moreover, the youth is afraid of talking of sexual life and health and about such issues as homosexuality, because of the rigidity and conservatism of the older generation.
The drug and youth worker from Shepparton made a pertinent point concerning a potential barrier to entry – the issue of sexuality and sexual identity:
“Umm being a more regional service, there’s definitely barriers…..to accessing treatment. We do…umm there is a service that ‘Cutting Edge Youth Services,’ which is another service here in Shepparton that umm deals a lot with gay and lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex umm people and umm they’re a great umm resource if if that person is sort of struggling with their sexuality as well.”
Issues around condoms
For the survey and also in literature review it was quite evident that there was quite lack of condom use by the young men. Therefore, I was particularly interested about if availability and accessibility of condoms for safer sex practice are an issue in rural and regional towns in Australia. (more…)
Masculine identity and behaviour varies over the lifespan of males but also that “Masculinity has been identified as a key factor leading both men and boys to risk taking and self harming activities” (Men’s Health 2007, p. 4). With general points in mind from the survey findings regarding starkly higher alcohol and drug use by the young men, I asked key informants whether there was something that triggers drinking or drug taking behaviour of young men. A drug and alcohol health worker in Shepparton replied:
“I think umm the there is a lot of umm modelling”….. “ah modelling a lot of especially in small rural communities where the sporting arena tends to be umm where young men look for their role models and if, if the if they are in small communities that idolize footballers for example and that the captain of the football team can you know drink 20 beers and still be standing, then I you know young men look at that and they….they don’t differentiate between umm how someone can perform on the football field and how someone performs in a pub.”
Young men are vulnerable to the impact of stereotypes that define their behaviour and they do not always develop positive models of behaviour. In stark contrast, often they develop dangerous models of behaviour that may have a negative impact on their health. Young men may follow the lead of celebrities but they may perceive them in erroneous way. As a result, young men shape their gender roles under the impact of numerous stereotypes that set them within the framework of biases and gender-related stereotypes.
When prompted to continue:
“they blend them together and they soon er they soon see that you know he’s a hero because he can drink rather than he’s a hero because he’s a good football player umm again that I think there’s there is there is a creep, a cultural creep to move away from that with the responsible service of alcohol in sporting clubs. Ah where you don’t buy a couple of slabs for the thirds if they have a win ‘cause they’re all under 18.” (more…)
First, alcohol affects different systems of organs, including nervous and cardiovascular and causes cirrhosis. Its constant use leads to evident and fast deterioration of health and can result in fatal outcome oftener than use of marijuana. The number of accidents caused by alcohol overdose is much larger than by marijuana.
Certainly, it is necessary to address to social effects of these two substances. It is known that long-term alcohol drinking causes graduate and ultimately absolute degradation and desocialiazation. Alcoholics exhibit violence in families and among friends. In the majority of cases, alcohol use is the cause of domestic violence, which often results in homicides. Alcoholics are dropped from society as people who have lost their moral make-up and have found themselves at the bottom of life. Alcohol abuse is hard to be cured and therefore it is usually almost impossible for an alcoholic to find a job and thus to find his place in the society. (more…)
The problem of substance abuse is very acute and disturbing nowadays. Bad habits become more widespread and the public should concern about the consequences of great amount of people who are into drugs and alcohol nowadays. There is a number of stereotypes concerning drugs and alcohol in today’s society. Thus, for example the legality of alcohol makes it in the eyes of people less dangerous and harmful than marijuana, which is illegal and in the minds of many people as harmful as heroin and cocaine. It is known that alcohol drinking and marijuana smoking are the most widespread types of substance abuse. It is necessary to compare and contrast these two substances in order to find out which one does more harm, while the fact that both of them are pernicious for health is unquestionable.
Speaking about the effects of alcohol drinking on the mental and physical health, it is necessary to mention such visual signs as affected coordination of movements, inarticulate speech, decreased inhibitions, poor judgment (). These are immediate effects of alcohol use, which intensify with bigger dose. The immediate effects of marijuana are red eyes, euphoria at the first minutes of smoking, slowed reaction, increased appetite, memory loss (Yacoubian). The question that arises is why people use these substances if their even first effects are far from pleasant. In fact, both usage of alcohol and marijuana has become a very comfortable way to join any company and to feel more confident and free. Both alcohol and marijuana stimulate relaxed and euphoric behavior and the reality seems simpler and less frustrating. Therefore, substance use fulfills a function of socialization for many teenagers. For those who smoke marijuana colors and sounds become more intense (Yacoubian).
However, the long-term effects of both alcohol and marijuana are far more dangerous and pernicious. For young people, who have experienced some pleasant feelings it is always very difficult to stop, though soon they feel depressed and exhausted instead of happy and encouraged. Therefore, substance overdose is very common among both teenagers and adults and it leads to far more serious health damage. Alcohol overdose results in vomiting, headache, loss of memory, in extreme cases it might lead to coma and death. Evelyn Zamula in his article “Bodily Harm; the Health Effects of Excessive Drinking” writes that,
Death can also occur if a large amount of straight liquir is drunk in a short time, as occassionally happens when barroom athletes show how well they can hold their liquor, or at college initiation ceremonies. Most who drink that heavily only escape death because large amounts of alcohol trigger vomiting, which protects the body from absorbing any more alcohol” (12). (more…)
Many acts of violence are committed by men under the influence of alcohol. This can be explained by the fact that alcohol unleashes emotions, fears, anger and insecurity, which some men are not able to bear.
But alcohol itself is of course not the cause violence. Heredity is not the cause of violence either. In the final analysis, the cause of violence is the desire of some men to dominate over women other men or groups of men, desire of adults to dominate over children. Violence is a way to acquire power, privilege, establish control (Lorenz 2002, Campbell 2009).
In addition, a person’s behaviour is also dependent on his or her lifestyle, habits and interests. Thus, scientists believe that they are able to prove the existence of a cause-and-effect relation between the playing the computer games, which include numerous scenes of virtual violence and violent behaviour of players in reality (Freedman 2002).
The relationship between virtual and real violence is not a secret, but the interpretation of this relation is a matter of controversy among experts: inclination to virtual violence can be both a cause and a consequence of the tendency to deviant behaviour.
During the study conducted by specialists, in 39 players who were addicted to different types of computer games, the indicators reflecting the level of emotional reaction to visual stimuli were measured.
Test persons who were fond of violent computer games demonstrated a decreased reaction to pictures of scenes of real violence and cruelty. At the same time while displaying images of non-violence, but also containing a strong psychological impact on viewers, such as, pictures of sick children or dead animals, the intensity of the emotional reactions of the test individuals corresponded to the norm.
In addition, gamers with the too low sensitivity threshold towards violence scenes demonstrated increased sophistication and ingenuity getting a mission to come up with the punishment for imaginary enemy. At the same time, the research manager Bruce Bartholow stated that this wasn’t the first study showing that passion for games with elements of violence influences the brain of players, further leading to aggressive behaviour. According to experts, people addicted to violent computer games lose their emotional sensitivity and begin to perceive violence and cruelty as a matter of course (Edens 2006).
However, some experts continue to doubt the existence of causal relationship between virtual and real violence. Psychologist of Toronto University Jonathan Freedman believes that everything we have in this case is just the reduction of emotional reactions to the scenes of violence, so it is actually impossible to prove that it is somehow connected with aggressiveness in real life (Freedman 2002). (more…)
The ability of a teen to gain access to alcohol has been shown to be one of the strongest factors which contribute to underage drinking (Schmitz). As a result, states have passed more and more legislation to try and stem the flow of alcohol to teenage drinkers. From age limits for purchase, to strict penalties for minor-in-possession laws, state after state has enacted stricter legal barriers to keep teens from drinking. Surprisingly, there are parents who act against these laws and willingly provide alcohol to their teenage children. Approved teen drinking is more common than one would think. In 2005, the American Medical Association reported that one in four parents of teens reported that it should be acceptable for teens to drink at home with their parents present (Adults). Traditionally, society has perceived teenage drinking as a serious problem which results in numerous problems in teenagers’ psychological and physical development. Despite the majority of those in American society recognizing teenage drinking as a serious problem, some parents consistently contribute to increased teenage drinking by allowing teenagers to drink at home. These parents allow their teenage children to drink at home believing that drinking under their control will be safe for the teenagers. However, in actuality, research has documented that the consumption of alcohol by teenagers produces a negative impact on their psychological and physical development (Adults). Moreover, parents who allow teen drinking increase the risk of teenagers’ addiction to alcohol therefore increasing the possibility of negative psychological and physical effects on their development caused by the consumption of alcohol. (more…)
In Europe, where the average age limit is 16-18, one in four deaths of men aged 15 to 29 is associated with alcohol, and in some countries of Eastern Europe – one in three deaths. All in all in 1999 over 55 thousand young people inEuropedied from causes related to alcohol consumption. Change of adolescents’ behavior in the alcohol consumption in European countries leads to a significant increase of not only mortality, but injury and disability (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism).
Each year 58 thousand young alcoholics appear inEurope. This is stated in the World Health Organization report “Youth and Alcohol” published inAustria. According to WHO, one in four deaths among young men and one in ten deaths among girls is connected with alcohol abuse. More than 50 thousand young men and almost 8 thousand girls inEuropeare killed at road accidents, poisonings, suicides, or during fights being drunk before they are 30. According to the WHO report, alcoholism among adolescents is especially prevalent in France and Poland. However, in other European countries such as Belarus, the Baltic States, Russia,Ukraine and Hungary the cause of one third of all deaths of young people is alcohol abuse (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism). (more…)
Should the drinking age be lowered?
The minimum age, at which the law permits consumption or purchase of alcohol is set in many countries. The introduction of such legislation is considered as the measure of controlling the period, when young people first meet with alcohol. It establishes a formal age limit, at which alcohol consumption is considered acceptable in certain society, and provides enforceable mechanisms to prevent access to alcohol for people under certain age. In recent years, rapidly growing alcohol consumption among young people, marked with a number of health and social consequences, causes great public concerns is many countries.
Martinic, Marjana, and Fiona Measham. Swimming with crocodiles: the culture of extreme drinking. CRC Press, 2008. Web.
The book “Swimming with Crocodiles” addresses this important and politicized issue in the relevant social, historical and cultural contexts. The book is based on an empirical study in the format of focus groups inBrazil,China,Italy,Nigeria,Russia,South Africaand theUK(Scotland). All the groups included young people at the age which officially permitted to consume alcoholic beverages. The study significantly revealed how young people understand and treat the consumption of alcoholic beverages, displaying negative effects of extreme alcohol consumption.
Graham, Philip Jeremy. The end of adolescence. Oxford University Press, 2004. Web.
The entirely different position is presented in the “The end of adolescence” by Philip Graham, who approaches the problems adolescence from the viewpoint of contemporary myths concerning it, and thus, works out positive outcomes of teens’ functioning. The author claims that frustration, fear, failures and conflicts could be overcome, if teenagers are given enough responsibility for their own actions. (more…)