My Writings. My Thoughts.
It is important to underline the fact that the BBC is public media but it is basically financed by the state Consequently it would be logical to presuppose that the views presented by the BBC would be rather influenced by the current governmental position. However, in actuality, it turns to be that the BBC is traditionally believed to be politically independent and deprived of any sort of influence from outside, especially from the part of the government. This belief, being to a certain extent a stereotype, is strongly supported by numerous evidences that reveal that the BBC is not a means of propaganda of the state policy, in stark contrast, it often criticised and still criticises the government. Not surprisingly that the BBC is “regularly accused by the government of the day of bias in favour of the opposition, and, by the opposition, of bias in favour of the government” (Briggs 1995:321).
In this respect, it should be pointed out that the BBC can be also politically influenced through appointments to its Board of Governors and by threats to change the licence fee. Nonetheless such political influence is less obvious in the BBC than in other broadcasting companies and media.
Thus, taking into consideration all above mentioned, it should be said that the current position of the BBC in the international market is very strong, while on the national level the BBC still remains one of the leading British broadcasting corporations and it even keeps enlarging its network in the UK. However, its strategy of the international market expansion seems to be consistently more perspective due to the high popularity of the brand of the BBC and the recognisability of the corporation practically worldwide. At the same time, one of the major conditions of the future progress and success of the BBC is the preservation of its traditions and high standards. On the other hand, the BBC should also pay attention to critics and avoid the possibility of impact of any external forces on the policy of the corporation as well as the corporation itself should be focused on the objective representation of the events that take place in the world and convey adequate message to the mass audience worldwide. Continue Reading
the BBC does not focus solely on the quality of its products and services but it also pay, a lot of attention to the quality of the relationship within the corporation and to the quality of the organizational culture. In this respect, it is worth mentioning the fact that the BBC attempts to develop quite liberal relationships within the corporation in order to give its employees larger opportunities for the successful creative work and for the improvement of their professional skills through experiments and efforts to introduce some innovations. However, it should be said that the professional liberty and independence of employees, namely journalist, is not absolutely unlimited. In this regard, it is necessary to remember about standards and principles in accordance to which the BBC functions nowadays and which have persisted practically since the first years of the functioning of the corporation. Basically, these standards and norms refer to the moral and ethical sphere and attempt to prevent the use of methods and techniques that do not meet the format of the BBC and that can potentially deteriorate its public image or, what is more, change its traditional niche in the market.
By the way, the latter does not necessarily mean that the BBC does not attempt to find new niches in the market to occupy. In stark contrast, the corporation attempts to find new segments and niche of the market where it could offer its products and services, which could be really interesting to the public. At the same time, the BBC tends to avoid the direct competition with private companies. In fact, strategy seems to be quite logical and rational. For instance, it is obvious that the BBC can hardly compete with such giants as MTV in the field of entertainment and music in particular. It would be simply illogical to invest funds into the development of this branch of the BBC, because the corporation could hardly succeed in the competitive struggle with private companies that have very strong positions in the market. Instead, the BBC offers original and different products. For instance, its documentaries are traditionally positively perceived by the mass audience in different countries of the world. Naturally, the corporation readily develops this branch and occupies its own niche in the global market and, what is more important, the BBC manages to take the leading position in this niche that gives the corporation a strategic advantage compared to its competitors. As a result, even if private companies attempt to enter this market, it is more likely that the BBC will be able to compete successfully even with the largest private companies. Continue Reading
The British Broadcasting Corporation was the first largest broadcasting company of the UK. In fact, the BBC paved the way to the development of public broadcasting in the world, since it was one of the first broadcasting companies not only in the UK but also in the world. At the same time, the corporation gradually evolved from the national leader into a huge corporation which nowadays is broadcasting worldwide and is one of the leading broadcasters of the world. Nevertheless, in the course of its development the BBC has never changed its basic principle of the public broadcasting corporation, though it did not prevent the corporation from the criticism. In actuality, the BBC remains one of the few large public broadcasting corporations while the overwhelming majority of companies operating in the world market are predominantly private that actually defines a considerable difference between the BBC and other, private broadcasting corporations. However, it is necessary to underline the fact that the current position of the BBC is really difficult. In spite of seeming progress and stable position in the world market, the BBC has to compete with powerful private broadcasting corporations which basically target at the selling products to customer, while the BBC was traditionally oriented on the public needs.
On analyzing the current situation in the media industry and the position of the BBC in the world market, it should be said that the BBC is primarily a brand and the brand constitutes a considerable part of the market value of this corporation. At the same time, the BBC attempts to keep pace with the changing business environment and preserve its quite a unique position in the global market. In this respect, it should be said that the company basically uses the strategy of the market expansion on all levels from the international to the local one. Continue Reading
Buy essay on Describe several strategies for encouraging environmentally responsible behavior that go beyond traditional intervention
The environmental responsibility is one of the major concerns of the contemporary society. The negative impact of human activities on the environment has already led to numerous negative effects, such as the global climate change and global warming, green house effect, pollution of air and water, and others. In such a situation, it is very important to encourage environmentally responsible behavior of people, but, today, traditional intervention does not really work and often traditional approaches to encouraging environmentally responsible behavior do not work. As a result, the need in the implementation of new, more effective stimuli or measures to encourage environmentally responsible behavior is needed.
Traditionally, one of the major ways of encouraging environmentally responsible behavior was the spread of information on the effects of human activities on the environment and the necessity of its protection. However, people often ignore this information and do not take it seriously, though the actual situation is really disturbing and the pollution of environment has reached an unprecedented level (Applewhite, 1981). Consequently, instead of such traditional approaches it is necessary to focus on the invention of new approaches which can not only encourage but also make people and organizations be environmentally responsible. Continue Reading
Grossbart makes Marx think about simple but justified questions, such as: Why don’t Jews get to worship on their Sabbath? Why doesn’t the mess hall serve kosher food? Such questions evoke the Jewish identity of the main character and he cannot help from supporting Grossbart dissatisfaction with the position of Jews. However, Marx soon understands that Grossbart does not take his Jewish background seriously. Instead, Grossbart proves to be a very pragmatic person who just looks for personal benefits. In such a context, Grossbart’s devotedness to Jewish traditions and norms is very hypocritical because he uses them for his mercantile purposes. For instance, he wants to attend “shul” to get out of work but not because of any cultural or religious importance of “shul”.
However, Marx proves to be quite a different person. Consciously or not, he cannot help from starting defending his Jewish traditions, norms and religion. In fact, such a rebellion against the existing and dominating Christian norms and rules is rather unconscious since the main character has noticed that “the next morning, while chatting with Captain Barrett, I recounted the incident of the previous evening. Somehow, in the telling, it must have seemed to the Captain that I was not so much explaining Grossbart’s position as defending it” (Roth, 35). Continue Reading
The conflict between Jewish and Christian background of the main character occupies the central place in the short story “Defender of Faith” written by Philip Roth. Basically, the author attempts to reveal the profound conflict which takes place at two levels, internal and external, and in which the main character, Marx, gradually evolves into a true defender of faith. At the same time, this story is noteworthy from the point of view of the search of identity since the main character seems to be in a permanent conflict with his Jewish background and predominantly Christian environment. Such a struggle and search for identity makes this story particularly interesting for contemporary readers when the problem of the preservation and search of identity is extremely important.
First of all, it should be said that Marx is not really confident of his socio-cultural background. He does not really pay a lot of attention to his cultural background, his origin and his environment. At the beginning of the play he states that “I had been fortunate enough to have grown an infantryman’s heart (Roth, 1). In such a way, he definitely associates himself with the rest of the community he got used to live in, i.e. in the Christian community. In spite of the fact that he knows that he is a Jew and he is different from other people who predominantly Christians he does not really bother himself with such questions as what his cultural heritage is or what his faith is. He just leads an ordinary life of an ordinary man, he just attempts to be like others. In such a way, from the beginning of the story the author creates an image of a conformist. Continue Reading
Taking into consideration the importance of psychological contract and difficulties of its establishment, the violation of psychological contract may be extremely dangerous for the stable functioning of an organization. Basically, it should be said that one of the major goals of psychological contract is the improvement of employment relationship through the introduction of additional stimuli, obligations and promotion of positive expectations among employees. In such a situation, if psychological contract is violated the effects may be quite the opposite to the major goal of the introduction of psychological contract.
First of all, it is necessary to remember that psychological contract is an unwritten agreement between parties, an employee and an employer. Moreover, this agreement is based on the mutual trust because it cannot be control by any legal means. Instead, only ethical principles and moral norms could control the fulfillment of psychological contract by both an employee and an employer, which actually represents the entire organization in view of an employee. In such a situation, the violation of psychological contract by either party will inevitably undermine normal employment relationship between employees and employer. Continue Reading
Basically, perceived breach may lead to perceived violation, though it depends on four factors (Rousseau, 310). The first is outcome assessment. The greater the perceived imbalance between the two parties’ contributions, the stronger the relationship between perceived breach and violation. The greater the valued attached to the outcomes, the more likely it is that violation will occur. The second factor is attribution. If an employee believes that the organization purposefully reneged on their promises, employees will experience more intense negative emotions. The third factor is process. If an employee feels that they were fairly treated, dealt with honestly and respectfully and received adequate justification, they will be less likely to experience negative reactions. The forth factor is the context in which the perceived breach occurs. The social contract in the employment relationship entails beliefs about exchange, reciprocity, fair dealing and good faith. If for example, lay-offs were unheard of in a particular organization and an employee was laid off, the breach of contract will lead to greater feelings of violation because it was unexpected and contrary to previous organizational actions. Continue Reading
Specialists (Schein, 224) argue that incongruence occurs when an employee has perceptions of a given promise that differ from the organization. This may be a consequence of three factors: different schemata, complexity and ambiguity of obligations, and communication. In addition, some researchers (Rousseau, 341) reveal the problem of different schemata. Schemata are cognitive frameworks that help people process data in order to make sense of events and situations. One schema relates to the employment relationship, which helps individuals define what a typical employment relationship entails. How an individual interprets job security will depend on how job security fits into an individual’s schema for employment relationships in general. These schemata are heavily influenced by prior experiences, for instance a Japanese manager may have a different schema from the one held by an American manager.
Also, it is necessary to remember that the more complex and ambiguous the obligations, the more likely that different perceptions between the two parties will occur (Rousseau, 327). The greater the accuracy and truthfulness of communications, the more likely there will be congruence between the two parties. Continue Reading
Taking into consideration the great significance of the establishment of psychological contract and numerous difficulties organizations may face in the process of its establishment, as well as management of psychological contract, it is necessary to pay a particular attention to the identification of breaches that may appear in relationships between employer and employees that may threaten to psychological contract. In this respect, it is possible to refer to Robinson and Morrison (2000), who present a theoretical model of how contract violation develops. Breach or perceived breach have been operationalised as the perception that one’s organization has failed to fulfill one or more obligations comprising the psychological contract. A perceived breach has occurred when one cognitively calculates what one has received relative to what one was promised. The important issue is that an individual perceives a contract breach; in some cases this may arise from a real breach and in others, it may be less clear whether a real breach has occurred. For example, a recruiter may make a clear promise to an employee that he or she will be promoted in three years and, when this does not happen, the employee perceives a breach of contract. In another situation, the recruiter may make a vague statement that people in this organization tend to get promoted rapidly. When the promotion does not happen, the employee may perceive a breach of contract. Continue Reading