Negotiation is an exchange of opinions for achievement of some purpose. In business world we often enter into negotiation process with an aim to achieve concrete positive result. Negotiation is also a sequence of mutual suggestions by which sides try to attain the most effective acceptable permission of conflict. It is well-known fact that negotiation is always directed on a certain result, more or less advantageous for partners (or it will be better to call them opponents), and that they talk, their potential possibilities always must conduce to the benefit. The benefit of such process in ideal case should have bilateral character. The participants of negotiation must realize partial community of interests, without whatever would be possible to begin negotiations. Under mutual suggestions it is necessary to understand not only an exchange of words but also an exchange of actions. These actions, or events, often influence on the end of conversation and result concrete situation. I’d like to discuss in this paper concrete negotiation aspect with the chosen person and show on this example negotiation skills.
However, it is not enough in negotiation process only to begin it and then wait for a positive result. The process of negotiation is a work and sometimes rather hard work that needs not only knowledge but also negotiation skills and different methods and techniques implementation. I think that person who is involved in negotiation process, let’s take for example, car salesman, and have no right on mistake, because trial and error method is wrong position for negotiation. Every negotiation can be appraised from the different standpoints: more frequent than all got effect and sense of satisfying with success have a most value. It is also necessary to tell about importance of BATNA in negotiation. I want at first define the term BATNA and explain its meaning for the next effective work through this paper.
We also will talk about Fisher’s classification which he used in his popular book “Getting to Yes” that offers three criteria of estimation of negotiation: reasonableness, effectiveness and constructability. BATNA is a term that was invented by Roger Fisher and William Ury in their above mentioned book “Getting to Yes” which was published in 1981. According to Scott (1981) we can see that “BATNA: An acronym described by Roger Fisher and William Ury which means Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement. It is the alternative action that will be taken should your proposed agreement with another party result in an unsatisfactory agreement or when an agreement fails to materialize. If the potential results of your current negotiation only offer a value that is less than your BATNA, there is no point in proceeding with the negotiation, and one should use their best available alternative option instead. Prior to the start of negotiations, each party should have ascertained their own individual BATNA.” On the assumption of negotiation process we can see that there will be main factors that differed effective and ineffective negotiation. It is an interesting question: What does distinguish effective negotiations from ineffective one? I think that it can be described in three main criteria. A first criterion is concluded in aspiring to the receipt of reasonable decision of problem seems obvious, but stands to pay attention on it. It happens often, that people follow emotions more, than by logic and reasonability is a very important factor. Certainly, sometimes it is hard give determination to a reasonable decision, because one thing that seems to one man reasonable, for other person is no more than whim. However in negotiations the reasonable is considering a mutually beneficial decision, when opponents take into account not only own point of view but also opposite opinion. Although in reality we often run into obstinacy and egoism, it is necessary to aim to the mutual understanding. Otherwise both sides will find themselves in a situation of two goatlings on a narrow bridge.
The second line of reasonable decision is politeness. Under this word we understand accordance of decision existent rules and consuetude. It is known that not all obligations can be fixed writing and marked in legislation, but it does not mean that it is not necessary to adhere to the unwritten rules of moral. We should remember: will do as you would be done by. However, I want add to this statement: being polite, don’t lose vigilance. And the third characteristic element of reasonable decision is relative stability of result. It means that an agreement must be considered comprehensively, doesn’t depend on casual changes of situation. Finally, in ideal case of agreement must foresee interests of surrounding association. In fact those, who enter into negotiations, live in an association, and the result of their agreement often touches not only them but also people who are around them. It is possible to cite as an example many cases, when neglect it was even resulted the questions of ecology in dissatisfaction of public or, that worse, to the irreversible consequences. Vast decision-making sphere and important decision must be well-considered, and surroundings always must be taken into account.