Sophocles raises a number of important problems in one of his most famous works “Antigone”. In fact, in this work the author attempted to convey some of the major problems of ancient Greek society and the analysis of his work reveals the extent to which the problems of ancient Greek were still similar to problems of modern society since the relationships between people and their attitude to power still provoked numerous problems. Among these problems the conflict between monarchy and democratic thinking occupies one of the central places in “Antigone”. In this literary work, Sophocles show the opposition of supporters of democratic ideas, protecting sacred rights of people to the tyrant power of the king, Creon, who violates all the norms and traditions because he is the official ruler and he is not going to share his power with people. (more…)
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Antoni Gaudi is an outstanding Spanish architect who was perceived critically by many of his contemporaries. At any rate, it is possible to estimate that the personality of Antonio Gaudi as an artist was often perceived in quite different way. In fact, the views on his work may vary considerably from the exception of his architecture as masterpiece of modern art to the total rejection of his works as absolutely irrelevant to art.
In spite of certain contradictions in views of his contemporaries, Antonio Gaudi still produced a profound impact on the development of architecture of the 20th century and art at large. First of all, it should be said that he started in a traditional style and basically tended to the gothic style. However, in the course of time, he developed his own, unique and very original style that actually provoked vivid discussions among specialists as well as ordinary people (Martinell, 184). (more…)
Many names and symbols of athletic team are considered to be extremely controversial. For instance, Redskins is considered to be a very arguable name of an athletic team which is widely criticized for presumably unsuitable name because it is argued that such a name discriminates not only Native Americans but the memory about them. On the other hand, it is evident that the use of such names may be viewed as a tribute to the past and history of America.
Nowadays, many athletic teams use a variety of names and symbols which produce numerous discussions which basically concern racial, ethnic, or cultural aspects that are considered to be hurt because of the use of controversial names and symbols. One of such names of an athletic team is Redskins which is currently quite controversial and arguable but, in order to properly assess the use of such names, it is necessary to analyze their use and socio-cultural context in which they are viewed. In such a way, it would be possible to make a definite conclusion whether such names are acceptable or probably they should be avoided. (more…)
The paradox really arises when Aristotle states that firstly, “none of the moral virtues arise in us by nature”(NE II.1) and secondly, “for things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them” (NE II.1). It sounds quite controversial and contradictive to what has been recently mentioned. In other words the first proposition eliminates any priory knowledge of virtue that is a result of a Platonic pre-existence or natural law. Whereas the second proposition is the premise where paradox arises because if people acquire knowledge or learn how to act virtuously, then they do not know how to act virtuously. However, the way people learn to act in a virtuous way is to act in such a way. But it should be remembered that according to Aristotle’s theory, people do not have any knowledge how to act virtuously because they have not learned how to. Thus, these two statements seem to be quite contradictive.
Probably, such interpretation of Aristotle’s theory is a bit mistakable and in order to understand it better some more ideas and examples should be drawn from his theory. For instance, at this respect very helpful seems to be Aristotle’s analogy that may be found in his works in which he discusses the similar relationship between a craftsman and his craft, and a virtuous man and his virtue. (more…)
In order to understand his viewpoint and find out whether his argumentation is reasonable it is necessary to dwell upon his theory in details. Taking into consideration Aristotle’s ideas it may be said that, while reading, a person can hardly understand what symbols written in the text mean. Consequently, in order to read one has to know how to do read. Practically, the same idea is applied to moral virtues, i.e. in order to act virtuously, one has to know how to act virtuously.
On the other hand, there may be certain objections concerning the interpretation of ‘action’. According to Aristotle, it is necessary to distinguish that kinesthetic learning is not so much about ‘doing’ as it is about ‘learning through physical task’. Consequently, it should be distinguished from the assertion that the doing of the action requires prior knowledge about how to do the action.
Furthermore, it should be pointed out that the Aristotle analyzed the problem of happiness in details and attempts to understand its essence and the ways of the achievement of happiness by each individual and even by the entire society since in his works Aristotle attempts to focus on the entire state and society, where the happiness of each individual shapes the happiness of the entire society that actually forms the ideal state, according to views of the ancient Greek philosopher. Basically, he argues that the happiness of an individual is virtually impossible if there are some problems in the state.
To put it more precisely, Aristotle stands on the ground that happiness can hardly be achieved by an individual without any external assistance. Naturally, he agrees that the role of individual is very significant in this process but, nevertheless, problems of other people and state at large can disturb an individual and prevent him from happiness. Moreover, Aristotle argues that there is no ideal state in the real world and this is why often the state causes a lot of harm to its citizens violating the rights of a part of society and creating privileged position for another part of society. (more…)
Aristotle is one of the most outstanding thinkers of the ancient world and he is considered to be one of the major philosopher that created the basis for the development of political and ethical views of Western civilization. In actuality, he paid a lot of attention to the development of state and its functioning as well as problems of ordinary people. Nowadays, his views are considered to a bit strange since in his works Aristotle combines problems related to politics and state with problems related to ethical sphere. In such a way, the philosopher does not distinguish politics and ethics. In stark contrast, he stands on the ground that this two concepts are closely interrelated and cannot be separated from each other. Such a position is quite different from the modern philosophy and traditional views and beliefs, according to which politics and ethics are often simply contrasting concepts. At any rate, politics does not necessarily implies ethics in the modern world.
At the same time, Aristotle views ethics and ethical development as the way to happiness. In fact, Aristotle attempts to create a unique system in which happiness of people should be one of the major concerns of the state. Consequently, Aristotle tends to combine concepts which are traditionally viewed separately and this is where the uniqueness of Aristotle’s ethics and philosophy may be found.
Aristotle’s Nichomachean ethics is closely related to his theory of habituation as he concerns the acquisition of virtues as a part of habituation. In his discussion of ethics Aristotle develops a theory which mainly concerns the problem how a person acquires moral virtues. According to him there are two types of virtue, namely they are intellectual and moral value. The former is acquired through teaching that is entirely plausible. However, Aristotle arrives to a bit paradoxical conclusion. He states that moral virtues are acquired through exercising them, in other words through habituation, namely he says that “for the things we have to learn before we can do them” (Nichomachean Ethics, II.1). (more…)
very important aspect against arranged marriage in the USA is the lack of personal freedom once bride and broom are married. It’s a common practice for arranged marriages that future divorces and separations are forbidden. First of all it violates the freedoms of married again and often destroys their personal life as in such situation people can not be happy. Moreover current statistics of divorces in the USA shows that the number of people who decide to divorce or marry again later grows from year to year. It’s a normal process in the democratic and liberal society as there exist a number of factors which influence such choices and which are not limited to personal love preferences. The statistics shows that Marriage rate is 7.5 per 1,000 total population and Divorce rate: 3.8 per 1,000 population (in 46 reporting States and D.C.) (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/divorce.htm) so every second couple will divorce. Other statistics also shows that shifting concept of family have evaluated also in the relation to the childcare isues: “One of this generation’s biggest changes is in the parental arrangements for children. In 1972, 73 percent of children lived with their original two parents, who were married. By 1998, 51.7 percent lived in such households. The number of children living with single parents went from 4.7 percent in 1972 to 18.2 percent in 1998, while the number of children living with two unmarried adults who were formerly married moved from 3.8 percent to 8.6 percent during this period. Cohabitating and remarried parents made up the rest of the group.”(from Marriage Wanes as American Families Enter New Century) (more…)
In modern world the concepts of democracy have become the standards of social morals and culture in general. It’s a well-known fact that today’s democratic world is based on freedoms: freedom of speech, religion and freedom of views. Different concepts of today’s life have become more than individualistic and they often have a very personal and subjective nature. In general, it was the primary goal of Ancient Greek, who developed democratic concepts and institutions which were later turned into practice first in the USA and later in Europe. If we’ll read the Declaration of Independence we will find the following lines: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” These lines mean that every individual in a just society has his one personal right to decide hi future life and look for happiness which also includes pursuit of love. It’s a well known fact that in Christian culture both Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox it’s the law to marry only when both love each other, otherwise it’s considered to be a disrespect and contempt both to a person, to society’s norms and to Christian ethics. It’s generally agreed that: “As members of most other Anglo cultures, Americans mainly see marriage as an institution for romantic love and companionship”. The legalization of arranged marriage is widely discussed by the representatives of different ethic minority groups in the USA today. According to dictionary arranged marriage means: “An arranged marriage is a marriage in which the marital partners are chosen by others based on considerations other than the pre-existing mutual attraction of the partners.” (more…)
The art of the Middle Ages is really interesting since traditionally, this epoch is considered to be as Dark Ages that implies that people living in that epoch were ignorant, poorly educated and had primitive perception of the surrounding world. As a result, the wide audience may believe that the art was in decline at the epoch of the Middle Ages because of the simplicity, if not to say plainness of human knowledge and philosophy at that epoch. In this respect, the exhibitions dedicated to the works of the medieval art are particularly interesting since they reveal the essence of the art of that epoch and human perception of the world. At this point it should be said that the works represented at such exhibitions often draw the public attention, such as “The Astronomer by Candlelight” (1650s) by Gerrit Dou and “A Dragon” detail from bestiary, Franco-Flemish, about 1270 are particularly noteworthy since the do not simply are perfect samples of the Medieval art but they also reflect the essence of the epoch itself.
Primarily, it is necessary to briefly discuss both works “The Astronomer by Candlelight” and “A Draon”, in order to better understand what they actually depict, their style and their historical and cultural context. First of all, it should be said that there is a considerable age gap between these two works which constitutes almost two centuries since “A Dragon” was created in 1270, while “The Astronomer by Candlelight” was created about 1650s. It should be said that, in a way, they are typical works of their epoch. “A Dragon” depicts a dragon, a fabulous animal which existed in numerous fairytales and vivid imagination of people of that epoch. The attention of the painter was totally focused on the Dragon which he placed in the center of the painting. This beast is huge and radiates great physical power. The latter is apparently emphasized intentionally because in the Medieval epoch dragons were viewed as the most powerful creatures that existed somewhere in the world . (more…)
The article “Effect of Work Related Stress on Firefighter/Paramedic” by Mark C. Shantz raises very important problem of the impact of firefighters and paramedics professional environment on their psychological health, namely on the level of stress. The author of the article reveals the fact that the professional environment produces a profound impact on psychological state of paramedics and firefighters. This is why he attempted to traces the major impact of stress, how it affects the work of firefighters and paramedics and possible ways of elimination of the risk of stress and its negative impact on the psychological state of these professionals.
First of all, it should be said that the researcher has revealed the fact that the job of firefighters and paramedics produces a profound impact on their psychological state because they often have to act in extreme situations and, what is more, they regular face a risk of getting injury or even death as well as they often witness severe injuries and deaths of other people. As a result, they are susceptible to stress, which deteriorates consistently their job performance leading to the lower effectiveness of their work and increasing the risk of job related injuries and traumas. At the same time, firefighters could be stress by their fire station environment, by their managers and management style, as well as by their colleagues. (more…)