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Obviously, during 14-18th centuriesAfrica has been rapidly developing and changing. In this respect, it should be pointed out that the development of great civilizations ofAfrica as well as the development of the whole continent at large was influenced by a variety of factors.
Among these factors, probably the most significant was the influence of Europeans on the continent. In fact, they arrived as invaders and colonised the continent. On the other hand they also produced not only political or economical but also cultural impact on the continent and this was another important factor that changed the world of African people, it was religion.
However, it would be a mistake to estimate that only European religious influence affectedAfrica. Muslim world also played an important role in the development ofAfrica, changing local culture, traditions, and beliefs.
Finally, the third extremely important factor that influencedAfricain the epoch was its socio-economic development, which occurred in the result of the fast development of trade with European and Oriental countries. In this respect, the formation of strong local empires contributed to stability of economic relations and spread of trade within the continent.
As a result, the three factors mentioned above shaped the development of Africa and, to a significant extent, predetermined its colonial future since Africa became a ‘Promised Land’ for slave-traders, invaders, and representatives of different religions where they could spread their ideas and beliefs.
Lord Byron, Percy Shelly, Joan Keats, and Thomas De Quincey are outstanding romanticist poets, whose contribution to the development of English literature can hardly be underestimated. The aforementioned romanticist poets opened new horizons for the development of poetry and emergence of new styles and trends. At the same time, they paid a lot of attention to unconscious, revealing hidden potential of human beings and their hidden desires and inclinations. In this regard, it is important to place emphasis on the fact that Lord Byron, Percy Shelly, John Keats, and Thomas De Quincey revealed the full potential of poetry in terms of depiction of unconscious, although they depicted unconscious in different ways that allowed the audience to reveal diverse aspects of unconscious.
Lord Byron is renowned for his romantic poems, among which it is possible to single out Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage and Don Juan, which reveal the unconscious side of human personality. To put it more precisely, Lord Byron focuses the pilgrimage of Childe Harold as the internal transformation of the main character, his transformation and evolution under the impact of his internal inclinations and hidden fears. Lord Byron attempts to reveal the unconscious side of human personality through revelation of adventures of main characters and transformation that occur to them in response to their internal inclinations and desires. At the same time, Lord Byron depicts unconscious as merely present in the human mind but still influencing the life of humans and their choices. In this regard, it is important to place emphasis on the fact that Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage is one of the most remarkable works, where the main character is driven not only by external but also internal forces. The main character encounters signs of fate, which are nothing but the manifestation of his own, internal inclinations and desires.
In this regard, Percy Shelley also attempt to reveal the unconscious side of human personality and the impact of unconscious on humans through the revelation of hidden desires and inclinations of main characters and narrators of his poems by means of signs and symbols. His lyric poems reveal his romanticism, which was closely intertwined with the play with unconscious. To put it more precisely, the author attempted to show that people are driven by different forces and they do not always know what they actually want and what they actually can do. In this regard, Percy Shelley’s poem To the Skylark is particularly noteworthy because, in this poem, the poet refers to a blithe Spirit, which is the manifestation of the unconscious. The poet uses a very symbolic image of a bird to show the unconscious of an individual, a poet. In fact, a bird symbolizes the hidden inclinations and desires of the poet, his strife for creativity and realization of his ideas but the unconscious is as far and incomprehensible for an individual as is the bird. The bird is flying high into the sky as unconscious is sitting deep inside of human mind and soul. In such a way, the poet attempts to show that people may have strong, hidden inclinations and desires but they are not always understandable and, what is more, people cannot always achieve what they actually want just because they do not know what they want and they cannot control their unconscious. The overwhelming impact of feelings and hidden desires proves to be too strong and the poet shows that people cannot resist nor understand their unconscious.
Joan Keats is another romanticist, who is similar to Percy Shelley and Lord Byron in their searches of unconscious. At the same time, Joan Keats had the similar experience as Percy Shelley of opium consumption that affected his creative work and brought in unconscious as a hidden force that influences human life and behavior. In fact, John Keats shows the full extent to which people are vulnerable to the impact of unconscious. Similarly to Lord Byron he uses different signs, which are the manifestation of the unconscious in humans and which reveal internal desires and inclinations of people. In such a way, the poet helps the audience to understand the overwhelming impact of unconscious on human life and behavior.
As for Thomas De Quincey, he refers to his personal experience of understanding and exploration of the unconscious in his Confessions of an English Opium Eater. This outstanding literary work reveals experiments of the poet and his attempts to understand his internal world. Thomas De Quincey attempts to describe his internal world and to show that he has some internal forces, which influence and define his actions. Remarkably, Thomas De Quincy views the consumption of opium as the way to reveal the unconscious because he believes that, as the conscious of an individual weakens, he can uncover his true desires and inclinations, his unconscious.
Thus, romanticist poets were quite similar in their views on the unconscious. They believe that people can have the unconscious that influences their life and behavior. Poets reveal the unconscious through symbols and conveying their personal experience.
Concept knowledge, or concept learning, also known as concept attainment and category learning is a method of categorizing different objects, or exemplars, to list their attributes and distinguish one from another. Within this approach, concepts are seen as mental categories according to which ideas, objects or events with common features are classified, compared and contrasted. There are different theories of concept learning, but most of them are based on learning from examples and induction and avoid abstraction.
Prototype and exemplar theories are two contrasting views on category learning. According to prototype theory, we percept new objects, ideas and events basing on examples we have already experienced before. It means that beneficial are previous experiences; they make up a selective advantage. Among those examples there are those which are used more frequently; they form a central tendency. Other examples are on the periphery of the category. Thus, semantic similarity is used to abstract from central examples and such idealized tendencies representing the category are called prototypes. Prototypes are defined as “a generic or idealized representation of a conceptual category” (Harley 2008). Prototype theory includes a notion of typicality effects introduced within evolutionary approach. This effect involves successive work of memory, logical reasoning, judgment, language and finally categorization.
Typicality effects are demonstrated during picture naming tasks, as a robin, for example, is more typically accepted as a bird, and penguin is not as typical as a robin or a canary are, because we prepare to see some small creature with a beak, with wings and able to fly and sins. We make inferences through visual processing and object recognition, singling it out of others and thinking of relations between concepts. Many tests have revealed mediated priming in picture identification. Harley underlines that “the relation between the picture and the meaning gradually became looser” (Harley 2008). Further, the concepts and inferences are provided with definitions and thus can become deductively valid.
However, the problem is that not all the categories are so prototypical and representative to be easily classified.
Exemplar theory is alternative to “prototypicality”. If the latter means that some typical concept provides representation for further perception, exemplar theory makes a stress on individual experience we remember of almost all the examples (or instances) of the category. We use our memories to classify a new idea comparing it with what is similar. And the extent to which the new entity is close to those resembled members of the category. It is significant to underline that examples are stored in memory verbatim, and thus these are individual properties that matter. They are not abstract and they do not provide a system of demands to a new member (Reisberg 2006). According to this theory, picture identification differs from that one in property theory. It gives a space for more assumption, but still there are difficulties remarked when entities have many features not saved in memory. The disadvantage of the theory is that it is not known how group membership is defined. Later it has been found out that this way of concept learning is more typical for young people, on early stages of getting knowledge. Later properties and generalizations are formed.
All in all, each theory provides new understanding of how we learn, know, remember and talk, and at the same time each has its weakness. Therefore, rational are those models where exemplar and prototype based theories are combined and compromised.
The main form of GATT activity was the multilateral negotiations. These negotiations were related to trade barriers, international tariffs, interpretation and making changes in the existing GATT rules and creating the new one. The influence on the political systems of other countries started in the times of GATT. Thus, Brazil and India were criticized for being inflexible. Political systems in these countries after World War II were significantly transformed, and both countries suffered from periods and political and economical instability. GATT demanded stability in the country to implements some regulative rules in the country. Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva argued that the stabilization can be achieved in the richest countries of the world. That time the president of Brazil also demanded the open market for Brazilian agricultural goods in the developed countries, in particular the USA and countries of modern Euro Union.
In 1985 GATT celebrated its fortieth anniversary. In response to this important date as well as some other internal problems GATT launched the eights round of negotiations. It was the biggest negotiations on trade ever and the important stage in WTO history. It took place in Punta del Este, Uruguay. The most important issues negotiated were the following: some policies of certain countries preventing GATT regulations, structural deficiencies in organization, and some new areas of global trade, like trade in intellectual property and services. Ten years later, after WTO foundation, the impact of this negotiations round was significant yet.
The reasons of GATT-WTO transformation
It cannot be said that the functioning of GATT was unsatisfactory: this organization functioned, developed and regulated global trade well enough. However, GATT leading members made a decision to replace it with new regulative institution for several reasons. As was mentioned above, in the middle of 1980th the problem of service trade and intellectual property attracted the attention of GATT. This market sector required regulation, but that time GATT regulated the trade in merchandise goods only. New regulative body should cover trade in intellectual property and services. Moreover, the work of GATT more and more adopted the selective nature. One more task of new regulative body was to re-union the member countries for entire membership.
Nevertheless, not only functional and practical reasons were important for WTO foundation. The establishment of new regulative body also had symbolic and philosophical meaning.
For the above reasons, the creation of a new, permanent trade body became one of the principal objectives about half-way through the GATT’s Uruguay round, which ran from 1986 to 1994. A draft for the new international trade body, the WTO, was drafted and formally approved at the Ministerial Conference held in the ancient trade center of Marrakesh in July of 1994. Under the terms of the so-called “Final Act” signed there, the GATT was replaced by the WTO on 1 January 1995.
On the web site of the WTO the responsibilities of member countries described as the following: “raising standards of living, ensuring full employment and a large and steadily growing volume of real income and effective demand, and expanding the production of and trade in goods and services, while allowing for the optimal use of the world’s resources in accordance with the objective of sustainable development, seeking both to protect and preserve the environment and to enhance the means for doing so in a manner consistent with their respective needs and concerns at different levels of development.” (WTO web site)
The members of WTO should recognize the “need for positive efforts designed to ensure that developing countries, and especially the least-developed among them, secure a share in international trade commensurate with the needs of their economic development.” (Ibid)
WTO members also have agreed to contribute to the achievements of these objectives into “reciprocal and mutually advantageous arrangements directed to the substantial reduction of tariffs and other barriers to trade and to the elimination of discriminatory treatment in international trade relations.”(Ibid)
Thus, in can be concluded that WTO was founded as the GATT successor and inherited its functions and rules, but added some more functions adapted to the modern world.
WTO and its impact on global trade
This chapter discusses the role of WTO of global market with the real examples in different countries. Its influence of the transitions of goods and investments as well as its impact on politics in different countries is in the focus of this chapter.
The role of WTO in global trade is the object of hot debates nowadays. No country can produce all its needs to itself alone, and global trade should compensate the inability of the country to satisfy its own demand. Thus, no country can avoid the participation in global trade market. It cannot be denied that global business environment was very significantly influenced with WTO agreements and rules. WTO also has the impact on the inner trade in member countries. For example, import in India was limited in quantity of goods. WTO forced India to remove quantitative limitations and open its market to import. As the result, Indian domestic producers were forced to compete with the imported goods, especially from China. Simultaneous liberalization of foreign investments increased the competition because of activity of local outfits of multinational corporations. This side of WTO agreements can be considered as negative impact. On the other hand, the liberalization of import opened new opportunities for Indian forms, because now they can access foreign countries opened for Indian imports and investments. The obvious consequence of import liberalization is also the consolidation of Indian market. The growth of competitive pressure pressed out many small businesses from the market. Those Indian forms who can survive on the open market had to seek the way to increase their competitiveness. For example, they could see foreign equity, foreign investors, and foreign technologies. Firms should have become efficient and dynamic to survive the global competition.
World Trade Organization, or WTO, is a global marker regulator. This is the only international organization, which sets the rules for the global trade, supervises and liberalizes international. It was established in 1995. 153 countries of the world now are the members of WTO. Thus, approximately 97% of world trade is regulated by WTO rules. WTO is intended to regulate the trade between participating countries: to formalize trade agreements, to provide the framework for negotiation, and solve the conflicts and regulate contradictions between member countries. WTO defines its mission as the following: to improve the global trade rules, agreements and regulations with the objective to help both exporters and importers of goods and services trade better and achieve the best performance on the global market.
The structure of government in the WTO is the following: a ministerial conference appoints a director-general and a general council in its biennale meeting in Geneva. Switzerland.
The impact of the WTO on the current situation in the world can hardly be undervalued. Now the WTO is one of the most powerful organizations in the world and the part of broader network of transnational institutions. It has the significant influence on transnational flows of production and investment. As every powerful organization, the WTO is severely criticized by some analytics and researchers. In particular, they often claim that actions of the WTO contradict the main principles of democratic society. According to their opinion, the methods and rules of transnational regulation narrow the exercise of democratic politics within these states and have the negative impact on the quality of democracy within domestic states.
The objective of this paper is to review the impact of WTO on global trade, its methods of regulation, and some consequences, and collect some arguments to support the following thesis:
There is no regulation without the limits; the positive impact of regulated trade outbalances the negative impact on democratic politics; in general the activity of WTO can be considered as positive despite some questionable issues.
History of WTO
In this chapter not only the foundation of WTO (previously GATT) is described. This chapter also discusses WTO as the part of broader network of transnational institutions. Nowadays three international bodies regulate trade and financial system in the world: International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and WTO. Speaking about globalisation analytics usually mention these three institutions. The following chapter describes the origin and development of this network of transnational institutions.
The World War II changed the world. In post-war year several powerful international organizations were established. These organizations were intended to revive, control, and regulate the international financial and trade cooperation. In 1944 the representatives of 44 allied nations gathered on United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, USA, to make some important decisions regarding to international financial and monetary order on the post-war World. On this conference International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) (now it is one of the five financial institutions comprising the World Bank), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) were established. The last one became the WTO forerunner. It is also worth mentioning that the idea if International Trade Organization was discussed on this conference, but the delegates could not find the compromise. International trade Organization had never come to existence, and the WTO adopted the rules of GATT.
Describing the consequences of Bretton-Woods Conference and the set up of new international organization in general, it is necessary to say that floating currency rates in 1930 had the negative impact on global economy. Negotiators on Bretton-Woods conference decided to establish new system of free currency exchange based on the free trade. It allowed the synthesis of free trade system, supported by the USA, and the idea of full employment and economic stability, desired by Great Britain. New economic system required new regulative institutions.
Despite the proclaimed goals – poverty reduction, economic stability – one of the initial purposes of these organizations was the support of developed countries starting from the USA. The strongest support the USA received from the new monetary policy: every country should adopt the new dollar standard and to tie the national currency with US dollar. Thus this system collapsed in 1971, when the USA stopped the convertibility the dollar to gold, the dollarization of global economy was already existing fact, and dollar stayed as the reserve currency for member states of IMF.
Thus, it can be concluded that GATT – the WTO forerunner – was created together with other comparable international organization after the World War II to support the new global order the interests of the United States. For almost the half of the century CATT was the only multilateral instrument, which could govern and regulate the global trade. The serious competition with other institutions were absent on the global market; so, together with globalization the impact of GATT increased and the organization transformed itself to international one.
First year objectives
The major goal of the introduction of iPhone 4 is the maintenance of the leading position of the product in the market. In this respect, it is worth mentioning the fact that Apple focuses on the development of iPhone 4 as the major product. In such a way, iPhone 4 can take the dominant position in the market on the condition of the effective promotion of the product and its introduction in the market. In actuality, the company can take an advantageous position compared to iPhone 4. As a result, the company can improve its position in the market and outpace its rivals, including the new rival, namely Google’s Nexus One. At this point, it is worth mentioning the fact that iPhone 4 has to achieve positive financial outcomes within the first year of the introduction of the product. In such a way, the company can attract the interest of consumers to the new product. In fact, customers focus on the importance of new technologies and innovations introduced in the new product. At this point, it is worth mentioning the fact that Apple enhances the competitive struggle and the company has to develop the new product to keep the attention of customers and to offer them better, newer products. Within the first year, iPhone 4 should take its position in the market and gain a possibly larger share.
Second year objectives
In the course of the second year, iPhone 4 should make a breakthrough and take the leading, dominant position in the market. Strategically, iPhone 4 should maintain the leading position in the market. The second year should be the year of the steady growth of iPhone sales.
iPhone 4 is positioned as the new model of iPhones, which is an advanced snmartphone, which should hold the leading position in the smartphone industry.
The product strategy focuses on the positioning of iPhone 4 as an innovative product, which offers customers new services and gadgets.
The pricing of iPhone 4 is close to that of rivals. For instance,the price of iPhone 4 16 GB is $199 that meets the price of HTC EVO 4G, one of the major rivals of the company.
The company can use the existing distribution network and channels. Potentially, the company can enter new markets of developing countries.
Marketing communication strategy
Apple should use mass media, especially internet and television to communicate the promotional campaign and to reach the target audience.
Before introducing iPhone 4, Apple should conduct detailed marketing research.
Apple should use the existing marketing organization. In this regard, Apple should use the full potential of its internal business processes. iPhone 4 can take advantage of positive image of the company in the market.
The action program of introducing iPhone 4 should focus on the development of clear purposes of the development of the product and its introduction in the market. Furthermore, the company should develop the plan of the implementation of the new product, including methods and strategies of the development of the new product. Finally, Apple should provide the accurate system of control to monitor the introduction of iPhone in the market.
Budget and control
The control is crucial for the successful introduction of iPhone 4 in the market. To conduct control, iPhone 4 should introduce the position of control officers, who can monitor the effectiveness of the implementation of the original plan of implementing iPhone in the market. The budget of the project relies on the existing financial resources of Apple and growing sale rates of iPhones within first years after the introduction of the project (See Table 1).
Speaking about the strengths of the company, it should be pointed out that the company operates worldwide, but, nevertheless, it does not prevent the company from the employment of the highly qualified personnel. This fact is very important because in the contemporary business environment the qualification of the personnel and the potential of its human resources are of a paramount importance. It proves beyond a doubt that the Apple Computers Inc. may use its human resource to accelerate its development because the high qualification of the personnel can stimulate the development of very perspective technologies and devices that could gain a large share of the market.
In addition, it should be said that the company has a significant experience in the electronic and software products. The experience of the company is also very important because it provides ample opportunities to use the existing system of the production process in the most effective way. At the same time, the company has a substantial material and scientific basis which is creates the basis for the further development of the company.
On the other hand, as any other company, the Apple Computers Inc. has its own weaknesses. In this regard, it should be pointed out that one of the major challenges the company is currently facing is the problem of the quality. In fact, the quality of products of the company is of a paramount importance in the contemporary world because it shapes customers’ perception of the company and its brand. In such a context, the formation of the positive brand image increases the customers’ loyalty, but the latter is impossible without the high quality and reliability of products of the company.
In fact, the company still has large opportunities for the further market expansion. At the present moment the company operates worldwide and international markets are actually open for the further expansion, which is facilitated by the popularity and recognition of the brand by customers. In this regard, even the problems with reliability of its products are not critical as long as the company maintains its positive image.
However, the Apple Computers Inc. should work hard to realize its actual opportunities because the company may face a number of serious threats. Among the most significant threats, it is possible to name the high level of competition. Even though the Apple Computers Inc. is one of the leaders in its industry, the company still has to compete with such a giant as Microsoft as well as a number of minor companies which attempt to enter the market, increasing the competition. In addition, it is necessary to remember about the fact that the electronics and software industry is rapidly progressing and the growing complexity of the structure of the company may slow down its technological development, putting it in a disadvantageous position compared to more flexible companies.
In such a situation, it is possible to recommend a company that attempts to compete with the Apple Computers Inc. to focus on the quality management as one of the main strategies to gain a larger share of the market. It is important to provide customers with products of the higher quality at lower price. The latter is possible due to lower popularity of the brand of the new company compared to the Apple Computers Inc. At the same time, it is impossible to succeed without the introduction of innovations. In fact, introducing of new products may give the new company a strategic advantage over the Apple Computers Inc. Basically, it would be practically impossible to compete with the Apple Computers Inc., if the company uses existing products.