Bulls, W.K. (2007). Leading by example: A soldier’s stories. Business Communication Quarterly, 70(3), 374-377. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EJ798389). Retrieved on September 25, 2009 from ERIC database.
The author researches the leading by example as the mainstream leadership style. In this regard, the profound research and analysis of leading by example is the major strength of the study, along with practical examples, which reveal advantages of this style in the real life situations. However, the author pays little attention to other leadership styles that is a substantial drawback of the study because it does not provide the comparison of different leadership styles. In such a way, the findings of the study turn out to be one-sided and quite subjective. In addition, the author limits the scope of the study substantially focusing specifically on leading by example. Moreover, the author mainly uses the military environment and subjects for his study. The findings of the study are similar to those made by Ekvall and Arvon (1994), and Lambert (1995), and Korkmaz ((2007) in regard to the importance of the effective leadership. However, unlike other researchers, Bulls focuses on leading by example, which the author defines as the most effective leadership style.
Ekvall, G, & Arvon, J. (1994). Leadership profiles, situation and effectiveness. Creativity and Innovation Management, 3, 139-161. Retrieved September 26, 2009 from
The authors conduct a detailed analysis of different types of leaders, their styles of work and its effectiveness. In this regard, it should be said that the researchers pay a lot of attention to the practical aspect of the implementation of effective leadership styles. At the same time, the study reveals the most effective leadership style and defines contexts in which specific leadership styles can be applied. On the other hand, a substantial weakness of the study is little attention the authors pay to theoretical framework of the study. The leadership profiles identified by the authors do not have a strong theoretical backup, but they are mainly developed on the basis of the empirical study. The findings of the study are similar to those of Bulls (2007), and Lambert (1995), and especially Korkmaz (2007) because the authors research different leadership styles, but unlike Bulls (2007), and Lambert (1995), the authors present different leadership styles and extend assessment of their effectiveness.
Fairholm, M.R. (2000). Leadership principles and technologies: The philosophy of leadership informed by the science of complexity, chaos, and quantum physics. Retrieved September 2004 from http://www.pat-net.org/pages/papers/fairhom.html.
The author researches basic leadership principles in the context of the modern world that is the major strength of the study because the researcher studies leadership principles in relation to modern challenges and socio-cultural context, in which leaders have to work. The author reveals a huge impact of technologies on the modern leadership and identifies basic leadership principles that define the work of modern leaders. At the same time, the study is a bit overwhelmed with scientific, technical terms which rather refer to physics than leadership. In such a way, the findings of the study as well as the entire study will be difficult to understand for an ordinary reader or specialist, who works in the field of leadership. The findings of the author are similar to those of Hoyle (2007), Fennel (2005), and Fullen (2005) for they also reveal the dependence of leadership on changes in the contemporary business environment. However, unlike other authors, Fairholm focuses on the interdependence between leadership and technologies uniquely.
Fullen, M. (2005). Leadership and sustainability. Thousand Oaks, CA, Corwin Press.
The author researches leadership as an integral part of the concept of sustainable development. The author focuses on the study of leadership principles and leadership styles and their impact on the organizational development as well as the development of the society. The large scope of the study is an obvious strength of the study, because it reveals the significance of leadership in the modern world and its potential impact on the development of the society, including the wide introduction environmental project and their development by leaders. On the other hand, the study seems to be a bit too generalized for more specific examples are needed along with focus on practical application of the research findings. The findings of the research are similar to findings made by Hoyle (2007), Fennel (2005), and Fairholm (2000) for the author agrees with the impact of changes on leadership, but, unlike other authors, Fullen attempts to develop effective leadership styles to ensure sustainable development of the modern world.
Lambert, L. (1995) Towards a theory of constructivist leadership. In L. Lambert et al. (eds) The Constructivist Leader (Chicago: Teachers College Press), 28–51.
The author discusses in details the theory of constructivist leadership. In fact, the author promotes the idea that constructivist leadership is the most effective leadership style in the contemporary business environment. However, the author’s attention to theorizing, being advantageous in terms of understanding of constructivist leadership, but it becomes a drawback, when the lack of attention to other theories becomes obvious. In fact, the author fails to critically evaluate the theory of constructivist leadership and slips to its detailed analysis to persuade readers in the effectiveness of this leadership style. The findings are similar to those made by Bulls (2007) and Korkmaz (2007), for the author admits the necessity to develop effective leadership styles, but unlike other authors, Lambert focuses on constructivist leadership solely and overemphasizes the theoretical background compared to practical applications of the findings made in terms of the current research.
Senge, P. (1990) Building learning organizations. In D. Pugh (ed.) Organization Theory: Selected Readings, (4th ed.) London: Penguin, 486–514. Retrieved September 26, 2009 from http://web.ebscohost.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/ehost/pdf?vid=1&hid=6&sid=a6bde02c-31b1-4ff1-afde-fd1c1368cb48%40sessionmgr11.
The author focuses on the development of effective organizational culture through wide introduction of knowledge management. The author stresses the role of leaders in the development of learning organizations. On the other hand, the weakness of the study is the little attention to the relationships of leaders and their subordinates and their mutual work for building learning organizations. Nevertheless, the author gives insight toward the development of effective organizations in the contemporary business environment. Similarly to findings made by other authors, Senge proves that leadership influences substantially organizational performance. However, unlike other researchers, Senge focuses on a new type of organization – learning organization, which the author finds to be the organization of the future.