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Where to buy essays online?
If a student is searching the Internet for where to buy essays, he/she should not take tension as there are many writing companies which provide high quality essay writing service on any topic. The major goal of essay writing companies is to help both college and university students in writing essays for a variety of academic disciplines. Some students are too busy, others are tired enough from constant essay writing, while the third category of students is focused on getting higher grades. Many students ask: “where to buy essays.” They find reliable writing companies and hire professional essay writers to create unique essays, research works, reviews and etc. As a rule, students are satisfied with the results of the work of writing companies. The major features of a reliable writing company in which students say: “where to buy essays” are high quality writing techniques, creativity, originality, online on time delivery, detailed research, the use of proper formats and writing styles. If a student says: “I know where to buy essays,” it means he/she has found the most reliable and successful writing essay service. It also means that he/she knows the major advantages of this company and is ready to tell his/her friends about where to buy essays.
How to buy a paper online
Today, it is of great importance for students who have a desire to achieve success in academic studies to know how to buy a paper online. Skilled and specially trained online writers guarantee high quality of writing based on the established writing standards, including writing style, format, etc. If a student does not know how to buy a paper online, he/she should follow the proper instructions. First of all, it is necessary to fill in the writing service form to place an order online. Students should choose the type of the paper (essay, term paper, coursework, research proposal, thesis, etc.). Secondly, it is required to provide writers with the required sources (journal articles, books, lectures, online resources, etc.). Thirdly, it is necessary to proceed with payment. As a rule, both college and university students are interested in professional writing services and can tell other students how to buy a paper online. Students provide personal information that should be secured, so that no one could ever get an access to this info. When the order is placed online, it is assigned to a professional writer who has enough experience and knowledge to write an effective paper. Every student should know how to buy a paper online.
How to order a custom paper writing
As a rule, students experience a variety of problems with their custom writing papers. First of all, they need a considerable amount of time to conduct an effective research on this or that topic. Secondly, students may miss some points when they write on their topics. Thirdly, when students use free research papers, it is very difficult for them to avoid plagiarism. Fourthly, their custom writing paper may lack creativity. Lack of creative ideas in a custom writing paper leads to lower grades. Taking into consideration the above mentioned facts, it is necessary to conclude that students should accept the offer for professional help. Skilled professional writers give an opportunity to avoid any problems with custom writing paper. Students buy a custom writing paper from the writing companies because they need original papers without any mistakes. Professional writers help to achieve this goal. Due to writing companies, students can save time and avoid any stress with their academic assignments. Many writing companies that offer custom writing paper have got good reputation among students. 27/7 customer support, free delivery, free title page and bibliography, high quality of custom writing paper, perfect service are guaranteed. Many students do not hesitate and use writing services to have better academic results.
Today the majority of students know that essay writing is one of the things they have to struggle with because it should be organized in a proper way, with the established format, word counts and without any grammatical mistakes. In fact, students have to choose the appropriate words to convey their original ideas. They need good spelling and effective sentence flow, which should be supported by quotes and convincing arguments. Many students ask professional writers: “help me write my essay”. They seek help from well-trained writers whom they can trust. Many students visit a writing company website and say: “I can pay you if you help me write my essay.” Of course, the major goal of any writing company is to hire skilled and creative writer who will be able to cope with any task and assignment to meet the demands of today’s clients. That is why when a student says: “help me write my essay,” he/she wants to hire a professional writer. As a rule, students are satisfied with the quality of work. In case they have problems with their assignments, and their professors want then to redo something, students say: “help me write my essay” and make certain amendments.
How to purchase essay online
If you do not know how to purchase essay online, you should read the following information. Today, many writing companies provide their clients with reliable and professional essay writing online services. To succeed in essay writing and get the best academic results in this or that field of study, it is possible to use writing online services. Those students who do not know how to purchase essay online, should be very attentive in choosing a writing company. They should take into consideration the following features a reliable writing company must have in today’s competitive environment: good reputation, professional team, experience, effective sample papers, free delivery and amendments, and perfect customer service. As a rule, students find and check a writing service company, place an order and provide writers with the proper requirements (essay format, page number, the type of essay, references, and more). It is not enough only to know how to purchase essay online to get higher grades and academic success. Essay writing service is focused on effective teamwork. In case a student is not satisfied with the quality of work, he/she has an opportunity to choose another writer. Every student who needs professional essay writing must know how to purchase essay online.
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Today, many job applicants are interested in how to choose a resume writing service. It is necessary to follow several steps that will help to make a right decision. First of all, it is very important to find and check out several writing service companies in order to see if they are capable of providing effective writing services, including writing resume, cover letters, personal statements, application letters, and more. Secondly, it is required to consider the cost. Thirdly, it would be better to learn about the company’s reputation and the writers’ experience. Now, if somebody asks you how to choose a resume writing service, you will be able to give a good advice. Do not forget that in order to write an effective resume, it is necessary to provide enough personal information. When your friend asks you how to choose a resume writing service, you should give him/her the above-mentioned recommendations. Of course, it would be better to talk to other job applicants who have already been interested in this issue and know how to choose a resume writing service and obtain good results. Remember that an effective resume is the first step on the road to getting a good job.
How to find an essay writer
It is obvious that different people have different skills. For example some group of people are very good in chemistry, but they can not remember any historic data, other can solve any math problem, but they know nothing about literature or you can be a very talented artist, but you have no idea how to write simple college essay. This situation is normal, people can not be genius in all spheres of our life… but the good news is that now you can find specials who can help you.
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How to write essay?
Here are just a few guidelines that will be helpful when it comes time to how to write essay question.
1. Allow adequate time to answer the question. By their very design, essay questions can take a considerable amount of time to answer. Earlier in this chapter, we contrasted closed- and open-ended questions, where the nature of the response is restricted or not. Regardless of whether an essay question is closed or open ended (remember, we have to be practical), you need to tell the test taker how much time he or she has to complete the question. And how much time should that be? Keep in mind that essay questions require test lakers to think about, and then write, the response. One strategy is to encourage test takers when they are practicing to plan their response by spending 30%-40% of their time outlining or “”sketching” their response, 4O%-50% of their time writing the response, and then the last 10%-30% rereading what they have written and making any necessary changes.
2. Be sure the question is complete and dear. This one sounds simple and it may indeed be, but sometimes essay questions are not very clear in their presentation. Want to know why? Because it’s not clear what the person writing the question wants to know. For example, here’s an unclear essay question
1. Discuss the impact of the Civil War on the economy of the postwar South.
This not like this question is that poorly designed, but it sure docs not reflect a clear notion of what was learned or what is being assessed. This is the kind of a topic that some historian could write seven volumes about! Look how much more clear the following:
1. Discuss the impact of the Civil War on the economy of the postwar South, taking into account the following factors: reduction in the work force, international considerations, and the changing role of agriculture.
This second example just provides additional direction, which may be exactly what the test taker needs to answer the question more completely.
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Following the sample essay is a ‘template’ exercise, where the student is given the shape of the essay, and asked to fill in the details. This is a way of translating understanding of the theory just studied into practice.
Sample essay tests. Sample essay tests require students to organize, integrate, and interpret material, and to express themselves. “Short-Answer and Essay Tests,” for guidelines on creating this type of test. Research indicates that students study more efficiently for essay exams than for multiple-choice tests: students preparing for essay tests locus on broad issues, general concepts, and interrelationships rather than on specific details, and this approach results in somewhat better test performance on all types of exam questions sample essay tests also give instructors an opportunity to comment on students’ progress, the quality of their thinking, the depth of their understanding, and the difficulties they are having. However, because essay tests pose only a few questions, their content validity may be low. In addition, the reliability of essay tests can be compromised by subjectivity or inconsistencies in grading.
A variation of an essay tests asks students to correct sample essay answers. One faculty member uses the following technique: Two weeks before the exam, he distributes ten to twelve essay questions, which he discusses with students in class. For the exam, he selects lour of the questions and prepares well-written but intellectually flawed answers for the students to edit, correct, expand, and refute. The sample essays contain common misunderstandings, correct but incomplete responses, and illogical inferences.
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A custom essay, what is it? Any type of written academic assignments could be a custom essay, including admission essays, research papers, term papers, 5-paragraph essays, compare and contrast essays, persuasive essays, descriptive essays, cause & effect essays, process essays, narrative essays, literature reviews, and many others.
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There are many reasons why students want to order essay online. Some of you just have no time to finish written assignment, other are not so good in writing, but still do not want to get low grades. Maybe you have more important things to do and to think about (like your relatives, you beloved, your job). Continue Reading
When talking to senior high school and university students, we have found that while most of them are confident about the content of their various subjects, nearly all of them are daunted by the prospect of integrating that knowledge into a well-structured essay which will do justice to their mastery of the subject. Many find essay-writing to be the most difficult aspect of their studies. Even those who are good at essay-writing (and are well advanced in university study) are keen to improve their writing skills and maximize their marks.
It is very frustrating if you have worked hard to master a subject and then find that your attempts to communicate that mastery are frustrated by your inability of good essay writing about it, to put your ideas across interestingly and compellingly and be rewarded appropriately.
Because students are invariably either studying English language and literature at school, or have done so if they have left English behind at college or university – and because it is my own discipline – many of the examples we use are drawn from the kinds of essay writing set and written for English, either at the senior secondary and matriculation level, or at college and university. However, the skills which are needed for an essay writing for English are applicable to other subjects. Also, other kinds of essay writing techniques are considered too.
The proper essay writing is fulfilled if it assists students to think logically, intelligently and even excitedly about what is required and expected in their essay-writing and to find ways of displaying their knowledge to its best advantage and adapting it to the various kinds of topics and tasks which are set for essays.
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This research paper will touch upon the issue regarding the Children Education in Mexico. There is a great problem of illiteracy and ignorance of education in Mexico that is why the level of education in the country is rather low. Of course, it requires certain improvements in the system of education. I am going to pay much attention to analyzing the present day system of education in Mexico. The problems of education in Mexico are rising from pre-school education. That is why it is necessary investigate this issue too. The major educational reforms which have already been carried out in the country prove the fact that some certain changes in the educational system are of great importance. It is clear that good education will make it possible to improve the political and economical situation in the country. Moreover, good education will put the country on the higher level in the world economy. I think it is one of the most significant tasks of the Mexican government to provide appropriate financing programs for the future development of education in Mexico.
Martinic, Sergio. (2003) Educational Progress and Problems in Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2003/4. The Leap to Equality. Retrieved from:<http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001468/146805e.pdf>
This research work illustrates the diversity and contrasts which characterize the countries of Central America. The author of this source discuses the problems which prevent the development of education in the countries of Central America. He uses a lot of statistical data to prove his analysis and gives an appropriate description of major educational reforms. This resource will be very helpful in my future research work.
McLaughlin, H. James. Scooling in Mexico: A brief Guide for US educators. Eric Digest. Retrieved from:<http://www.ericdigests.org/2003-4/mexico.html
This article sheds light on the schooling system in Mexico. The author of the article gives a brief overview of the education system in Mexico and describes the life of schoolchildren in primary and secondary schools. This information will be very useful for my research paper.
Ramos, Eliseo G., Fletcher, Todd V. (1999) Special Education and Education Reform in Mexico. Bilingual Review.
The article was written by two experts Eliseo Guajardo Ramos and Todd V. Fletcher who have direct relation to the issue regarding education in Mexico. They analyze the present day situation in Mexican education system, represent different legislative changes and discuss the education reform. Moreover, they touch upon the issue regarding special education in Mexico. This article is worth reading and analyzing because it helps to learn much about education in Mexico.
Sanibanez, L., Vernez G., Razquin, P. (2005) Education in Mexico: Challenges and Opportunities. Research Report. RAND Corporation.
This research paper provides the background information on the education system, shows the status of Mexican education and touches upon the issue concerning the government support.
This source will be very important for my future research work as it represents reliable information on education system in Mexico and provides some methods which will help to improve the present day situation in Mexican system of education.
Vargas-Hernandes, Jose G. (2010) A Study of Education in Mexico. Issues and Challenges in the Economic, Political and Social Trends. International Journal of Education. Retrieved from:<http://www.macrothink.org/journal/index.php/ije/article/viewFile/529/370>
This source is a reliable one because it was written by Jose G. Vargas-Hernandes who is an excellent specialist, M.B.A: Ph.D and have experience in this issue. He discusses the governance of education, finance and comprehensive assessments in the process of education. His research paper gives an opportunity to understand what perspectives of higher education are in Mexico. This source will help me to investigate how the economic situation in Mexico influences the system of education.
SNS might be covered by privacy law because their users are only considered as data subjects but not as controllers. Therefore, they are exempted from the protection responsibility of their own privacy. In this case users use the SNS on behalf of companies that use these sites mostly as platforms for their commercial goals increasing. Besides, Hargittal (2008) argues that where a company has to collect the users’ personal information, it should first have their approval before publishing their private information or images. Additionally, they should develop a mechanism according to which users will be able to employ expressing their privacy concerns on the application.
On the other hand, according to Collins (2008), the privacy concerns plaguing social networking sites can only be solved in case the users take a more careful approach on what they share along with how much they share. Besides, increased privacy settings are not always guarantee of privacy. Furthermore, the social networks are increasing; and as a result, since the security programmers’ tasks have become increasingly expansive, it is getting more difficult to successfully monitor protect site users and their activities.
Meanwhile, Collins (2008) also shows an example of the Facebook loophole application, arguing that when the faulty API was exposed to public, Facebook amended the wording of the agreement of the users, though there was nothing that technically solved the problem.
Finally, Gross & Acquisti (2005) stress that there is also another reason the social networking sites should be covered by privacy. This reason is based on the fact that certain bugs and exploits featuring technical functions of these sites are considered to be the main aim of hackers owing to limited security measures being deployed by the majority of SNS. For example, there is no secure links methods present on a number of these sites.
Moreover, such basic measures as encryption are non-existent. As a consequence, this has enable to open up threats, for example, the interception of the password, commercial information mining along with the database reverse-engineering. Gross & Acquisti (2005) argues that this should be in the position to provide a genuine support for SNS, being covered by the laws of privacy.
It should be also mentioned that according to Westin (2003), there is no threat to SNS users and the high profiled cases on identity theft and stalking cases among businesses or even government record systems are merely heightening perceived risks connected to privacy and security in recent years. After all, the interpretation of privacy is varied from one user to another. Furthermore, the risks that the wicked users will join particular groups or networks to exploit genuine users might be deemed not a great threat. Hence, law should not be extended to agree to privacy protection for things which is expressed in the public domain. Instead, what is required is just a basic warning of the likely pitfalls that comes with such freedom.
To sum up, according to the above analysis, there are many opinions on the idea whether or not the social networking sites should be covered by privacy law. The opinions are different. When we want to accommodate the varying opinions, we need to have a more colloquial approach. The activities causing specific harms are to be identified and constrained. Furthermore, the site owners are suggested to develop and start a policy development process that will ensure pertinent actors jointly identify preventive measures, minimizing the privacy risks for SNS users.
Social Networking sites include financial motivation generating revenues from the information that users upload. As usual, the usage of major sites is free, and Social Networking sites have to compensate for the cost incurred by getting revenues from their users’ identity-relevant information. The best way to attain this is to create user’s marketing profiles along with serving them with targeted advertisements. The Social Networking sites get a lot of information regarding their users and these users are not able to bargain over the terms disclosing the information, control surfaces architecture, as a result, these users are susceptible to harms (Davidrip 2008).
Moreover, the private information posted online along with the data outlining their actions and interactions with other individuals is in the position to produce a full profile of a given user’s interests and pose the main risks to identity thefts, loss of job or even business opportunities. Even the most secretive firms are now not free from the public eye in the modern era of social networking.
Nevertheless, Edwards & Brown (2009) think against the claim that social network sites should be covered by privacy laws. They are sure that legal regime addressing privacy concerns on social networking sites does not to restrict users’ ability to give up intimate information. Anyway, the future of both technology and law will require reconciling the users’ desire to self-divulge information along with their instantaneous desire that the information disclosed be protected.
Furthermore, it is possible that the personal information security and user privacy are irreconcilable with the set of users’ preferences as regards information sharing behaviours and the necessity of using technology to do so. Additionally, social networking sites have the up-to-the-minute and perhaps the most problematical case survey so far of technologies whereby users’ desire information security along with control clash with their self-disclose wish.
Despite the fact that the law might provide some protections regarding the information control, the code aspects itself propose equally essential means of reaching a golden middle between the expectations of users concerning information security along with the privacy and their desire to share the information.
However, to prevent users from information-based harm is also a reason of supporting the claim that social networking sites might be covered by privacy laws. Besides, several activities harming users require concrete information concerning the data subject before execution, for example, social security number to get credit. People can use the specific information, such as your address and current employer, to determine you are not available at home. As a result, the possibility of criminals breaking into your house is increased. (Davidrip 2008). That is why, the social network sites should be covered by privacy laws.
Meanwhile, Lange (2007), is against the claim that social network sites should be covered by privacy laws saying that by doing so, communication technologies may erode the boundaries between publicity and privacy. Besides, Lange (2007) goes on arguing that the massive bodies that are used by individuals and public as the organizing categories are not always themselves informed by a careful deliberation of the meanings in addition to the repercussions of the concepts themselves.
This observation was proved with the latest studies on private and public distinction in deliberated contexts. There are a lot of latest studies arguing about public and private media that do not recognize nuanced meanings. Lange (2007) argues that what ought to be considered is how the contexts other than what is being analyzed in order to shed light on public /private dimensions.
In this paper, a critical review is presented regarding the current status of the concerns of privacy. The concluding argument exposes that there are many issues featuring privacy and security concerns as validated by the opinions concerning the issue of the subject. That is why to accommodate the varying opinions we need a more colloquial approach. Therefore the site owners are recommended to design and to start a development process policy, according to which the pertinent actors jointly will identify the preventive measures of reducing privacy risks for the users of the Social Networking Sites.
It is a well-known fact that across the international boundaries the number of social networking sites is increasing, and as a result, the privacy concerns along with the data protection are becoming more and more relevant. Both private people and organizations, after considering these concerns, have adopted a variety of opinions concerning whether or not the social networking sites should be covered by privacy laws. It is important to mention that it might be rather difficult or even impractical for their users to avoid these online networking sites as they have become and are also continuing to become more popular.
Westin (2003) reports that young people on these social networking sites, such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace, are telling their personal details of their personal lives, that results in warning of a statement of what is considered to be public or private. In addition, now we come across the process of rethinking of the privacy conceptions due to that public sharing of the private information. As a result, we have an important question to answer; “is it necessary that the social networking web sites will be covered by private laws or not?”
According to Davidrip (2008), social networking sites are the websites allowing users not only to upload any given information to a public profile, but also to create a list of online friends and as well and browse the profiles of other users. Along with the community standards, the websites have their own membership rules. By means of their profile users therefore can make known their identity-relevant information to others. Furthermore, Davidrip (2008) thinks that this information is not only referential but attributive as well. Despite the fact that laws and regulations control an access to referential information, attribute information is protected less than referential information. However, Davidrip (2008) is sure that new privacy risks are created by the aggregation of huge number of attributive information on the profiles of the social networking sites. Therefore, he argues in claim support that social network sites should be covered by privacy laws.
Private messaging users on social networking sites write and read messages on the provider’s server, not downloading them to their own computers. (Klein, A., Lyons J., M., A Sperl, A., 2010)
Information using the social networking sites is spread faster than the information spread through the means of a real-life network.
Information may be disclosed to a great number of people, bearing the fact that digital information is not difficult to copy and can be stored indefinitely for long. In addition, you can search for the digital information. Davidrip (2008) argues that privacy laws should cover social network sites, owing to the fact that it can harm users if information comes to people whom it was not directed.
Choice of appropriate solution
In my opinion, the most effective option for HR professional in China not belonging to Pingyu Coal & Electric Co Ltd would be to initiate the procedures of social auditing and practices of employee charters for Chinese mining companies. This option might be the most difficult to implement due to political and administrative issues in China, but this is also the most effective mechanism of establishing ethical practices for small private mines. It has been discussed above that many dramatic accidents and unethical behaviors in China are not reported to the public. This reveals several dangerous tendencies:
- People are not aware of real situation in the industry
- The authorities latently support violation of safe working conditions through concealment of these facts
- Large players in the industry can act differently compared to small private companies (main violators)
In such situation, introducing codes of conduct might not work well, since the owners of companies with unethical practices can perform pressure on the other industry players and on HRM professionals, and these codes of conduct might turn into another formal document. The practices of whistleblowing and positions of ombudsmen might be more effective for Chinese mining industry, but the possibility of concealment of violations at the top governmental levels will not be reduced by this solution. At the same time, relatives of miners and other employees affected by unethical practices will not remain silent, if there would be a possibility to initiate social auditing of a given company. Although Chinese government has strong trends towards hiding of information (Mooney & Knox & Schacht, 2010), modern means of communication still make it impossible to suppress the voice of the public opinion. Thus, social auditing and staff charters are the most appropriate option for improving ethical business practices in Chinese mining industry.
Analysis of the case of accident with coal miners in China has shown that the choice of HR solutions and available options depends not only on the practices of the company and specifics of the industry, but also on the political and cultural issues in the region or in the country. Three possible options available for HRM practitioner were identified for the case of China mining industry: ethical codes of conduct for industry and for the companies, legislative protection of whistleblowing and positions of ombudsmen, and social auditing combined with staff charters. After analysis of all factors, the latter variant was chosen as the optimal one.
Unethical actions in a business environment result in a great number of long-term consequences such as demotivation of employees, high turnover, increase of percentage of unethical employees, lack of trust for the company by employees, customers, business partners etc. Although Chinese mining industry primarily deals with internal customers, unethical practices in this industry affect both home and international business aspects, and seek for improvement. An effective idea for improving business ethics in mining industry suggested in the paper is to introduce social auditing and to support staff charters on the governmental level.
Possible HRM/ER Solutions
Ethical choices of HR manager may range from compliance with unethical business practices to ethical assertiveness. Intermediate attitudes include neutrality, tolerance of unethical acts and ethically reactive behaviors (Armstrong, 2006). Optimal ethical behaviour is the ethically assertive approach which combines the interests of interior and outside domains. Such position requires the ability to translate private ethical concerts into managerial decisions and to integrate them with corporate strategy and public relations; consequently, such approach also needs practical skills of maintaining moral choices and the balance between personal and organizational ethical interests (Armstrong, 2006). This paper considers the actions of an HR managers whose position is proactive and ethically assertive. Moreover, the scope of application of the actions should not be narrowed to Pingyu Coal & Electric Co Ltd, since there is a large number of private mines in China experiencing the same ethical problems.
There are three options available for outside HR manager. The first option is to introduce a code of conduct (intended to become an industry code of conduct), and to disseminate it among mining organizations, along with the statistics on incidents and economical analysis of effectiveness of ethical and unethical decision-making for mining, as well as analysis of long-term and short-term perspectives of both approaches. A Code of Conduct is the collection of principles, rules and values related to practices within a given organization or within an industry (Leopold & Harris, 2009). The most effective initiative related to the development of ethical codes would be to encourage HR professionals in mining industry to adopt these codes of conduct, and to help the industry integrate against unethical business agents.
Second option for HRM practitioner would be to establish industry regulations, procedures and protection for “whistleblowing” and to introduce the concept of “ombudspersons”. Whistleblowing is the disclosure of illegitimate or immoral practices of the employers or other involved organizations performed by members of the organization (Redman & Wilkinson, 2009). Whistleblowing can be an effective solution for China because many people are aware of unethical and unsafe practices, and if appropriate procedures and persons responsible for handling the complaints existed, it would be easier to detect violations and to address them. The actions of HE manager might involve creating of procedures for whistleblowing (Whistleblowing code), formulating a policy for whistleblowing, and develop solutions for protecting anonymity and confidentiality of the reporting person (Jackson & Schuler & Werner, 2008). Also, it might be useful to initiate creation of industry regulations for whistleblowing or creation of appropriate legislation. In the context of whistleblowing, the idea of introducing ombudsmen can also be effective. Ombudsman is a person assisting fair and unbiased resolution of complaints in an independent manner; this can be a separate person or a department. There are three types of ombudsmen: legislative, organization or hybrid (Sims, 2007). The most common type is the position of hybrid ombudsmen; this person is established by corporate policy, but has the power to investigate complaints and the authority to publish special and regular reports (Sims, 2007). HR manager might initiate creation of the position of ombudsman at Chinese mining companies along with encouraging whistleblowing practices and establishing appropriate protection for employees.
Finally, HR professional can choose to initiate ethical social audit of mining companies and staff charters in order to address unethical business practices. The concept of audit, well-known in financial sense, can be applied to ethical practices as well. Social audit is aimed at measuring to which extent the organization follows its values and objectives, and demonstrates compliance with the industry’s ethical practices (Hughes & Ferrett, 2009). This type of audit is performed by all industry stakeholders, such as customers, employees, contractors, suppliers, funders etc. The result of such audit represents a multidimensional opinion of all stakeholders on the compliance of industry’s (or company’s) culture with the stakeholders’ needs and expectations. Commonly, the practice of social audits involves the creation of staff charters – statements listing public services available for the staff, rights and entitlements as well as methods of addressing problems and disputes with regard to ethical practices (Hughes & Ferrett, 2009). Social auditing and staff charters are powerful means of social influence on business decision-making.
Contents Introduction 3 1. Case Analysis: Coal Miners in China 3 2. Possible HRM/ER Solutions 4 2.1. Introducing and implementing code of conduct 4 2.2. Regulation of whistleblowing and ombudsmen positions 4 2.3. Social audit and staff charters 5 2.4. Choice of appropriate solution 5 Conclusion 5 References 7 Introduction Generally speaking, business ethics can be defined as the use of ethical reasoning in business-related activities and situations which is aimed at resolving or clarifying appropriate moral issues (Beardwell & Claydon, 2007). Ethical decision-making in business includes three organizational aspects: business resources and activities, staff motivation for ethical behaviour and coordination of all departments regarding shaping corporate sets of values and beliefs (Beardwell & Claydon, 2007). Establishing ethical practices should involve all functional areas of the business such as finance department, production or services department, marketing department and human resources department. It has been proved that for building effective corporate ethical system the existence and implementation of formal trainings or programs are not so important as ethical leadership, perception of fairness among the employees and the alignment of informal and formal corporate cultures with ethical code of conduct (Sims, 2007). HR managers are the intermediaries between employer and personnel, and all such aspects as corporate leadership, motivation of the employees, personnel selection, training, team creation and nurturing of corporate ethical culture are in the HRM scope of responsibilities. Nowadays the success or failure of the company more and more depends on its response to ethical demands of the environment, and thus ethical effectiveness of HRM professionals is of “marginal significance” (Winstanley & Woodall, 2006). HR managers should possess appropriate moral and ethical qualities in order to establish leadership, develop a reputation within the company and to shape positive perception of HR profession. HRM practitioners have to deal with such ethics-sensitive processes as employee relations, business decision-making, communications, protection of assets, compliance with legal regulations, strategic decisions and solving ethical dilemmas (Hughes & Ferrett, 2009). The purpose of this paper is to analyze the case of coal miners in China, to evaluate three possible options available for an outside HRM professional, and to select the most appropriate solution for the problem. 1. Case Analysis: Coal Miners in China On October 16, 2010 a mine blast killed 26 miners at Chinese Yuzhou pit, and another 11 workers were left trapped underground, with possible rescue in 304 days. Such a forecast implied a very low possibility of survival for these people. The relatives of the miners reported that the workers had started operations in a mine which had not yet been ready. Gas concentration in this mine exceeded acceptable level by 40 times. Despite the dramatic events, the accident did not receive media coverage by Central television and other popular mass media. Even the website of the central government mentioned this blast only as a brief review. Such attitude of the authorities was greatly criticized by the community, including relatives of the miners and work safety professionals. China strongly depends on the mining industry, since energy needs of the country are by 70% fulfilled by coal (Mooney & Knox & Schacht, 2010). Despite the efforts of the government to close illegal pits and to introduce more strict standards of safety for the mining industry, China still holds the first place with regard to mining accidents and Chinese mining is the most dangerous in the world. It is reported that 2,631 people died in mining accidents in 2009 in China, and 2,433 – in 2010 (Mooney & Knox & Schacht, 2010). Such neglectful attitude to life and security of the miners strongly affects the international vision of China, and shapes a negative attitude to Chinese authorities worldwide. It is hard to forecast internal business relations between owners of most dangerous private coal mines and major coal consumers due to scarcity of information on Chinese internal business affairs (Hughes & Ferrett, 2009); however, it is likely that some enterprises will choose to end cooperation with companies which treat their employees in such an unethical way. The purpose of this paper is to consider practices available for HRM professional for improving the situation and helping to integrate ethical decision-making into business culture of Chinese mine owners, and into business culture of Pingyu Coal & Electric Co Ltd. It is important to note that the roots of unethical behaviour are not only related to business ethics of a particular company, but are deeply integrated into business practices and attitudes in China. For example, the new regulations introducing more control for mining operations and requiring the presence of mine managers in the shafts (Mooney & Knox & Schacht, 2010) have led to new manipulations of the legislation (e.g. miners were assigned positions of assistant managers, etc). In addition to this, such dramatic news are hidden from the public and receive little coverage. The solutions considered below take into account cultural and political issues in addition to main premises of business ethics and methods of establishing ethical business practices.
I have chosen the case of Sally, which is the case of a withdrawn catatonic state. In this respect, the development of mental health problems of Sally has started to develop since her childhood. In fact, mental health problems of Sally were the complications of flue, which were aggravated by the negative heredity. Her maternal grandfather had mental health problems. Since the early childhood, Sally has been slow to develop. For instance, she started walking and talking late that was the manifestation of the retardation in cognitive development.
Her mental health problems were aggravated by problems within the family and separation of Sally’s parents, which affected her socialization. The overprotection from the part of her mother led to her low participation in social activities and her socialization was fragmentary as she had poor communication with her peers. She developed odd interests
Stress in college provoked a withdrawn catatonic state. After hospitalization and treatment she recovered but became more and more reclusive. However, as her mother brought her back home she degenerated even further developing unresponsive behavior. In such a way, the return to her conventional home environment led to renewal of mental health problems.
As she was hospitalized, she demonstrated improvements in her conditions but upon her return home and her mother her conditions aggravated again. Eventually she was found by the police and sent to mental hospital.
In such a way, the case of Sally shows that the treatment of patients with similar health problems is essential. They need assistance of health care professionals and their relatives and family members should help them to recover, instead of isolating them from the rest of the society.
The problem of inequality of wages of men and women is extremely important today because women are in a disadvantageous position compared to men. As a result, women are in a disadvantageous position compared to men. In such a situation, the speech aiming at ten employees in Rochester will draw their attention to the problem of the unequal position of women and help women to gain a better, equal position through the support of male employees. The main point of the speech is to persuade male employees to support efforts of female employees to gain better position. Through the civil action or inaction, including strikes, they can force employers to provide equal conditions for men and women in the workplace environment.
In this regard, the use of statistics (see Table 1 and Figure 1) will help to persuade employees to start civil action right now. The plan includes the demand of employees to employers to set equal wages for men and women. If the employer refuses, employees should use the full potential of unions and organize a strike, if necessary, as well as file a lawsuit against the employer.
Today, the American society is facing a new stage of development, when the socioeconomic progress have opened the way for many Americans to change their life for better, but still a part of Americans still face inequality, which has persisted since the far past till present days. In this regard, the problem of wages in equality is one of the most challenging problems and one of the most poignant problems of our time. In spite of all the progress, our society has made in the course of the 20th century, today, in the 21st century, the wide gap between men’s and women’s salary persists. You should not think that this problem does not matter here, in Rochester, in your workplace environment. Look around you and you will see that it is men, just like you, young, full of power and enthusiasm, who are working and receive wages, women holding the same position as you cannot even dream about.
How many women do you know, who hold the same position as you and receive as high wages as you do? How many women do you know, who do the same job as you do and less efforts than you do? Or, probably women holding the same position as you do make fewer efforts to work as well as you do? Or, do they work worse than you? Obviously, NO! They work as hard as you do! They do their best to earn money to raise their children and help their families! They are just like you are! But explain me, then, why do they earn less than you do?
Think hard, but you can hardly find any plausible answer to explain such inequality. Just look at the statistics (See Table 1 and Figure 1), you will see that the inequality between men and women persists throughout decades. Since the 1970s till present days, the situation has improved but the improvements are scarce, taking into consideration the change in the social and family life. Modern families are not families as they used to be in the 1970s, for instance. They are not good, old American families anymore (Bonvillain, 1995). Many women have to raise their children without the help of their ex-spouses. The high divorce rate puts women into a desperate position, when they have to earn for living and to maintain their household and children being the only parent in the family and all their earnings are for the family (Hardisty, 1999).
In such a situation, the inequality of wages of men and women in your workplace environment is not just unfair but it is also the manifestation of your indifference to those who you are working with. Think of your own children! Think of your daughters! Would you like them working as hard as women today do to earn less then you earn for doing the same job as women can do? I guess, you would not!
Now, the time to act has come! You should start changing your workplace environment and conditions of work. You should not wait anymore because women cannot change their position in the workplace environment without your assistance. Your benevolence is an essential condition of the elimination of inequality between men and women in the workplace. You should support women and strike, if necessary, to force employers to set equal wages for both men and women. Together – you will win, apart – both men and women will lose.