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Today the majority of students know that essay writing is one of the things they have to struggle with because it should be organized in a proper way, with the established format, word counts and without any grammatical mistakes. In fact, students have to choose the appropriate words to convey their original ideas. They need good spelling and effective sentence flow, which should be supported by quotes and convincing arguments. Many students ask professional writers: “help me write my essay”. They seek help from well-trained writers whom they can trust. Many students visit a writing company website and say: “I can pay you if you help me write my essay.” Of course, the major goal of any writing company is to hire skilled and creative writer who will be able to cope with any task and assignment to meet the demands of today’s clients. That is why when a student says: “help me write my essay,” he/she wants to hire a professional writer. As a rule, students are satisfied with the quality of work. In case they have problems with their assignments, and their professors want then to redo something, students say: “help me write my essay” and make certain amendments.
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It is obvious that different people have different skills. For example some group of people are very good in chemistry, but they can not remember any historic data, other can solve any math problem, but they know nothing about literature or you can be a very talented artist, but you have no idea how to write simple college essay. This situation is normal, people can not be genius in all spheres of our life… but the good news is that now you can find specials who can help you.
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How to write essay?
Here are just a few guidelines that will be helpful when it comes time to how to write essay question.
1. Allow adequate time to answer the question. By their very design, essay questions can take a considerable amount of time to answer. Earlier in this chapter, we contrasted closed- and open-ended questions, where the nature of the response is restricted or not. Regardless of whether an essay question is closed or open ended (remember, we have to be practical), you need to tell the test taker how much time he or she has to complete the question. And how much time should that be? Keep in mind that essay questions require test lakers to think about, and then write, the response. One strategy is to encourage test takers when they are practicing to plan their response by spending 30%-40% of their time outlining or “”sketching” their response, 4O%-50% of their time writing the response, and then the last 10%-30% rereading what they have written and making any necessary changes.
2. Be sure the question is complete and dear. This one sounds simple and it may indeed be, but sometimes essay questions are not very clear in their presentation. Want to know why? Because it’s not clear what the person writing the question wants to know. For example, here’s an unclear essay question
1. Discuss the impact of the Civil War on the economy of the postwar South.
This not like this question is that poorly designed, but it sure docs not reflect a clear notion of what was learned or what is being assessed. This is the kind of a topic that some historian could write seven volumes about! Look how much more clear the following:
1. Discuss the impact of the Civil War on the economy of the postwar South, taking into account the following factors: reduction in the work force, international considerations, and the changing role of agriculture.
This second example just provides additional direction, which may be exactly what the test taker needs to answer the question more completely.
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Following the sample essay is a ‘template’ exercise, where the student is given the shape of the essay, and asked to fill in the details. This is a way of translating understanding of the theory just studied into practice.
Sample essay tests. Sample essay tests require students to organize, integrate, and interpret material, and to express themselves. “Short-Answer and Essay Tests,” for guidelines on creating this type of test. Research indicates that students study more efficiently for essay exams than for multiple-choice tests: students preparing for essay tests locus on broad issues, general concepts, and interrelationships rather than on specific details, and this approach results in somewhat better test performance on all types of exam questions sample essay tests also give instructors an opportunity to comment on students’ progress, the quality of their thinking, the depth of their understanding, and the difficulties they are having. However, because essay tests pose only a few questions, their content validity may be low. In addition, the reliability of essay tests can be compromised by subjectivity or inconsistencies in grading.
A variation of an essay tests asks students to correct sample essay answers. One faculty member uses the following technique: Two weeks before the exam, he distributes ten to twelve essay questions, which he discusses with students in class. For the exam, he selects lour of the questions and prepares well-written but intellectually flawed answers for the students to edit, correct, expand, and refute. The sample essays contain common misunderstandings, correct but incomplete responses, and illogical inferences.
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There are many reasons why students want to order essay online. Some of you just have no time to finish written assignment, other are not so good in writing, but still do not want to get low grades. Maybe you have more important things to do and to think about (like your relatives, you beloved, your job). Continue Reading
When talking to senior high school and university students, we have found that while most of them are confident about the content of their various subjects, nearly all of them are daunted by the prospect of integrating that knowledge into a well-structured essay which will do justice to their mastery of the subject. Many find essay-writing to be the most difficult aspect of their studies. Even those who are good at essay-writing (and are well advanced in university study) are keen to improve their writing skills and maximize their marks.
It is very frustrating if you have worked hard to master a subject and then find that your attempts to communicate that mastery are frustrated by your inability of good essay writing about it, to put your ideas across interestingly and compellingly and be rewarded appropriately.
Because students are invariably either studying English language and literature at school, or have done so if they have left English behind at college or university – and because it is my own discipline – many of the examples we use are drawn from the kinds of essay writing set and written for English, either at the senior secondary and matriculation level, or at college and university. However, the skills which are needed for an essay writing for English are applicable to other subjects. Also, other kinds of essay writing techniques are considered too.
The proper essay writing is fulfilled if it assists students to think logically, intelligently and even excitedly about what is required and expected in their essay-writing and to find ways of displaying their knowledge to its best advantage and adapting it to the various kinds of topics and tasks which are set for essays.
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Question 7 (p. 344). Many academicians have portrayed the ordinary worker as being engaged in meaningless work and being highly disaffected with his or her work role. Surveys and polls reveal a different picture. A Harris poll revealed that most Americans would rather keep working than take early or full retirement. How do you account for the picture of the ordinary worker drawn by many academicians, as contrasted with the findings of actual surveys and polls?
In my opinion, view of ordinary workers as of individuals performing mechanistic and meaningless work is highly biased, and it is the consequence of the ongoing debasement of the importance of vocational education and working professions by the intellectual “elite”. The elitist approaches have strongly integrated into social perception of working professions, and currently the shortage of production workers has already become a common trend. In many technical professions, salaries are higher than in the “white-collar” sectors, and the demand for production workers has traditionally been higher than for specialists with academic education.
Despite the unpopularity of working-class professions, the benefits and challenges provided by these professions are quite comparable with the white-collar sector. Gaining experience, achieving workmanship and mastery in the chosen profession are common for both for production workers and intellectual professionals. The results of the Harris poll prove this statement.
Modern changing conditions present plenty of opportunities for development and challenges for ordinary workers, and instead of eliminating workplaces for such specialists, technical progress have created new workplaces and new professions. The realm of vocational education is becoming more diverse and offers more opportunities for horizontal and vertical growth. The perception of working professions as of “mechanistic work” dates back to the era of manual labor and industrial revolutions. However, the pace of progress closes the gap between academic education and vocational education, and such elitist approach is no longer valid.
Question 2 (p.425). Describe the curriculum development process in your own school district. To what extent are teachers involved? Does the plan reflect concern for curriculum balance? Explain.
The process of curriculum development in our school district in NY includes several key stages, such as analysis of curriculum framework in focus groups, selection of evaluation criteria, formulating curriculum draft and discussion with educational experts and leaders to evaluate the projected changes and the curriculum. Focus groups might include educational leaders of the district, independent authorities, school principals and researchers. In order to develop a standards-based curriculum, New York State Educational Department has also signed a contract with an independent entity, R&D and service agency, WestEd. The purpose of the contract is to align the standards of the Career Development and standards of Occupational Studies with the state curriculum.
The role of the teachers in the process is mediatory: teachers are aware that the existing curriculum needs modification, and use the available means to integrate knowledge and to approach instructional process from broader perspectives. Some of the teachers are willing to participate in the processes of curriculum improvement, and they tend to use outside resources, read appropriate literature, and articulate new ideas. These attempts lack consistency, but in general the undergoing changes can be witnessed. The concerns for curriculum balance can be traced both on the district and on the state level; one of the distinct trends is to align curriculum needs with the future job requirements for the young people, and to provide a consistent curriculum which would enable the graduates to become successful members of the society.
Question 4 (p. 344). Some educators contend that vocational preparation should be provided only at the postsecondary level and, for those not continuing their formal education beyond high school, vocational training should be left to business and industry. Do you see any limitations and dangers in such a prescription? Explain.
Separating vocational preparation from the secondary school and leaving it to the institutions beyond high school might lead to several negative consequences in the society. First of all, such approach will increase social stratification and will reduce the opportunities for impoverished children to improve their social status. Moreover, this approach will lead to growth of the part of population lacking sufficient professional skills to earn a living, which might contribute to the criminalization of the environment and the increase of social tension. Moreover, separation of vocational preparation will lead to further induration of school curriculum and deepen the gap between actual needs of the society and the set of knowledge provided by school education. Vocational education in this system will also degrade because it is likely to be used for training manpower with maximal industrial efficiency; in these circumstances training will likely be narrowed down regardless the interests of students and society as a whole. Furthermore, such system will act against equal access to educational opportunities for all American citizens, which contradicts democratic principles adopted for the educational system.
From a long-term point of view, providing vocational preparation only at the postsecondary level will lead to increased opposition between cultural and vocational education. The confrontation between academic and vocational education has already rooted in the society, and contributed to social stratification. However, both types of education are interrelated, and in real life both of these concepts are essential for an adult individual. For young people, it is also highly important to evaluate their skills and abilities before choosing the profession, and this can only be done at school. The importance of including elements of vocational education into comprehensive curriculum is growing, and there’s an urgent need for reconstruction of vocational education. The society needs to bring general and vocational education closer into one curriculum. and to eliminate stigmatization of vocational education.
Question 1 (p.317). With the end of World War II, the president of Harvard, James Conant, (1945) stated that he looked forward to a united front in education tied together by the basic aims of general education in the secondary school and college. He concluded with these words:
Armed with General Education for a Free Society in one hand and Education for ALL American Youth in the other, I should hope to answer all critics of the future of our American schools!
Why did the “united front” between the secondary school and college fail to materialize? What is the situation today? What events have led to the decline of general education in the secondary school and college? In the face of its decline, why has general education undergone renewed concern over the course of time to this day?
In the middle of the twentieth century the goals of education were strongly shaped by the techno-industrial mobilization associated with the Cold War. Social problems such as increasing diversity, conflicts between different social groups as well as their divided interests and knowledge specialization made the task of providing general education and creating appropriate curriculum even more complicated than before. Moreover, the General Education in a Free Society and Education for ALL American Youth had a number of significant shortcomings and inconsistencies. The Harvard Report on general education was based on the subject curriculum and placed the functions of setting the interrelationships between subjects on teachers. Curriculum proposals outlined in the new programs proposed changes which were expected to have immediate effect on the nature of education, and many of the assumptions in Education for ALL American Youth were based on unrealistic expectations. The concept of junior high school viewed as the preparation background for more specialized high school diverged from the idea of general education, although the documents themselves claimed to promote the ideas of general education. However, the main cause of the decline of general education in the previous century was the Cold war and the space race, which have placed emphasis on discipline-driven curriculum.
As the purification and specialization of disciplines continued, many scientists in the 1960s-1970s started claiming that university disciplines and technical sciences in particular have moved too far away from the mission-driven world. After the collapse of Soviet Union the domination of nationalistic goals over democratic ones was over. The goals and purposes of education have been reshaped again, and the interest to general education revived. The programs America 2000 and No Child Left Behind focused on transformations of schools with regard to focusing on core subjects. Nowadays, the need for general education increases due to growing knowledge specialization and social fragmentation.
Question 9 (p. 278). Why have the traditional academic disciplines been inadequate to the task of general education?
Traditionally, discipline-centered approach to curriculum was accepted in education, and it proliferated during the beginning of the twentieth century. However, it appeared that discipline-based approach to curriculum lead to high level of abstraction and specialization in education, and thus this approach could not be used for general education purposes. Instead, the idea about having core disciplines emerged for building general education curriculum. The attempt to create the core in colleges and high schools basing on elective courses represented a modification of traditional academic approach; however, this approach also appeared to be inadequate for the purposes of providing general education. The previous decade was rich in the elective movement; however, students were likely to elect courses basing on personal considerations, scheduling convenience or basing on their special interests. Thus, elective courses helped rather to separate students and to increase the differences between them instead of serving the goals of general education.
The purpose of general education is to enlighten the person and to provide a set of integrated knowledge for future problem-solving. From this perspective, disciplinary academic approach cannot be used, because it results in extended specialization rather than in creating an integral set of knowledge. While the learners are taught to grasp the structure and approaches common to a particular discipline, the goals of general education are not reached in the disciplinary environment. Moreover, the interdisciplinary relations are very hard to trace in such a curriculum, and as a result, the student leaves the school with a set of isolated facts and knowledge, without knowing how to apply own knowledge in real-life situations.
Disciplinary approach to curriculum also results in significant curriculum congestion: in the real world, knowledge is not so specifically structured as it is in academic subject mapping, and many disciplines contain the same information (which is in fact at the turn between several separate subjects). Another limitation of the disciplinary approach is the sacrifice of applied knowledge for the sake of abstract knowledge. Overall, these shortcomings have led to high ineffectiveness of academic disciplinary system for general education purposes, and new schemes of organizing knowledge have evolved, such as lamination, correlation, fusion and broad fields.
Buy essay term paper on Question 1 (p.123). How do you account for the wide differences among contemporary curriculum writers in defining curriculum?
The twentieth century was characterized by rapid development in many spheres of human life, and there were inevitable changes in the sphere of education. The volume of knowledge has significantly increased, and the nature of knowledge has changed as well. The forms of learning and availability of education have also been reshaped, especially with the advent of telecommunications and computers. Thus, the role of the school and the conceptions of the learner have experienced significant transformation. New educational methodologies and philosophies have emerged, and as a result, multiple approaches to curriculum have evolved.
Two common outlooks on curriculum are progressive and traditional. From the viewpoint of progressivists, curriculum performs active generative functions based on the concept of dynamic knowledge. From the traditional point of view, the functions of curriculum are cumulative and related to subject-matter content; knowledge in this model is viewed as an organized system. Such approach was rather popular until the beginning of the twentieth century, but it has been challenged due to progress. The dualism between the learning program and its outcomes, subject matter and integration of the subjects into overall learner’s development, between educational results and methods have resulted in multiple ways of perceiving the notion of curriculum. Contemporary curriculum writers have thus adopted different points of view on curriculum, although each of these viewpoints has particular shortcomings. For traditionalist view of curriculum, many problems arise from the separation of curriculum from instruction, while for progressivists it is difficult to connect their curriculum models with the existing systematized and codified knowledge. It is likely that the most effective concept of curriculum will combine the best features of these two different approaches. However, the processes of knowledge transformation have not stabilized yet, and there is a high possibility that the variety of differences between modern curriculum writers will increase in future.
Custom essay on Does the following statement present a fair portrayal of Horace Mann and Henry Barnard? Explain.
Horace Mann, Henry Barnard and other promoters of a gentle pedagogy eagerly publicized the romantic ideals emanating from Europe, which assailed memorization, textbooks, physical discipline and the usual features of the neighborhood school [William J. Reese, “The Origins of Progressive Education.” History of Education Quarterly, Vol. 41 (Spring 2001), p. 10].
No, the above-mentioned statement does not present a fair perception of the achievements and intentions of Horace Mann and Henry Barnard. Both Mann and Barnard had a very down-to-earth approach, which was very far from romantic ideals. They have initiated the public school movement and laid the background for the whole system of public education. Their brilliant ideas and leadership have to a large extent shaped the modern educational system and have had a profound effect of the future of the nation. Mann and Barnard have promoted the idea of tax-supported public schools available for all children, and have pioneered in the improvement of school conditions and curriculum. Overall, they can be viewed as the founding fathers of modern educational system.
Among the particular achievements of Mann and Barnard there are surveys of learning conditions in state schools, starting with school buildings and facilities, and ending with the analysis of books used for the main subjects. Mann also analyzed instructional approaches, and outlined the particular social importance of group learning. A very significant contribution of Mann and Barnard is the system of institutions which they have founded. They laid the cornerstones for in-service education and teacher education. The reforms initiated by these two outstanding leaders allowed to build a solid and consistent educational system. They traveled to Europe and adopted the best and most effective educational practices, but have always approached to these practices with criticism. For example, Mann tended to move from the concept of “mechanized seminaries” based on monitorial instruction. Thus, Barnard and Mann did not assail the traditional features of neighborhood school, but have enriched the school practices with new subjects and new approaches instead.
The Christian faith has made a huge impact on people, their character, creativity, culture, etc. People have listened to the preaching, praying, they have observed a fast and various holidays for two millennia. All this has left an indelible impact on people’s consciousness. There were also other processes that have influenced differently on whole nations throughout human history and among them we can mention a difference in people’s views, culture, and churches. Thus, the main aim of this project is to learn about some of the distinctions of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, and to look at some of the main differences in perspective between Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Christianity.
Beginning with organization and religious authority it is possible to say that the Orthodox Church is organized into several churches, where we can find regional, autocephalous (governed by their own national synods and appointing their own patriarchs or prelates) ones. Comparing Eastern Orthodox Church to Roman Catholic Church it is important to note that the last one is highly centralized. The Pope, who is considered the successor of the apostle Peter and Vicar of God on Earth, is at its head. This means that the Pope has supreme legislative and judicial authority of the church, and can also manage all the affairs of the church. There is no doubt that the Patriarch of Constantinople has also the honor of primacy, but he does not have the same power and authority as the Pope does.
It is a well-known fact that the Eastern and Western Churches have different points of views on religious truth; for instance, trust must be experienced only personally in Orthodox Christianity, while sin, grace, and salvation are observed primarily in legal terms in the Western churches. In contrast to the Western Church, which tends to describe the drama of sin and salvation in legal terms, the Eastern Church comprehends the relationship of man and God in organic terms. Sin for Eastern Orthodoxy is not so much a fault as a disease. God does not punish the sinner, as a judge punishes the offender. In these sphere we can find a demonstration of relationships between a doctor and his patient. There is no separateness: this is my former sin in itself, here I am, and here is the sentence the Judge is dumped on me with punishing sword from without.
Eastern Orthodoxy stated that sin makes us more unhappy than guilty, and only person’s true wish to change own life may lead to salvation. The aspect of salvation shows that it is necessary to bring human nature into union with itself and with the Savior, and to destroy the evil dissection, to restore the primitive unity, just as the doctor is the best means of healing the body. In other words, comparing Eastern and Western Orthodoxy we see that orthodox dogma does not recognize the Western formalism with respect to God and man, i.e., a purely legal view of our salvation.
To sum up, we have discussed the main differences in perspective between Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Christianity, and have learned about some of the distinctions of Eastern Orthodox Christianity in the body of this paper.
History of the Christian religion has more than two thousand years of its existence. Christianity has the largest number of supporters in the world, and is now probably the most popular world religion, which dominates in Europe and America, which has a high position in Africa and Oceania (including Australia and New Zealand) as well as in several regions of Asia. However, mankind has come a long historical path over which religious views and beliefs were shaped and polished before prefer this world religion. East and west wings of Christianity began to vary in their language (Greek and Latin, respectively), liturgies and theological views. Thus, we are going to observe the main differences in perspective between Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Christianity, dwelling with more details on how Eastern perspectives on issues such as sin and salvation differ in some significant ways from Western Christianity.
First of all it is important to mention that the beginning of the separation of the Christian Church at the Catholic and Orthodox ones was made by the rivalry between popes and patriarchs of Constantinople for supremacy in the Christian world.
Organization of the Catholic Church differs in its strict centralization, while the Orthodox Church is organized into several parts such as kinds of regional, autocephalous churches. Every autocephalous church has its own bishop at its head. The Patriarch of Constantinople of course has the honor of primacy, but his primacy is observed in other way that the Pope is in Catholicism. The Pope defines a doctrine on faith and morals. His power is above the authority of the Ecumenical Councils. The centralization of the Catholic Church gave the birth to the principle of dogmatic development, reflected in particular right to non-traditional interpretation of the doctrine. Thus, in the Creed, recognized by the Orthodox Church, the dogma of the Trinity states that the Holy Spirit originates from God the Father, while Catholic doctrine states that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son.
The doctrine of the relationship between God and man, and salvation of man has different interpretations in the Eastern and Western Churches. Western Christianity is imbued with the spirit of the legality; emphasis is on the legal side of this relationship in discussion of sin, grace and salvation, measuring them with a yardstick of human community.
Eastern Orthodoxy, in contrast to Western Christianity, has a more organic view of man’s relationship with God. In general terms, the Roman Catholic understanding of the nature of the relationship of God and man is the following: God, offended by human sin, is angry at him and sends punishment for this; therefore, to direct God’s justice with mercy, a person should bring satisfaction for sin. Salvation is conceived primarily as an escape from punishment for own sins. As a result, the laity, being in the fear of punishment for the sins, thought more of the penalties and the means to avoid them than to eliminate the sin itself.
In Orthodoxy, salvation is understood primarily as a deliverance from sin in itself. Sin brings damage, ‘corruption’ in the nature of man, removes a person from God, prompts a person to be at enmity with God, but God does not leave even a sinful man without his care. From a human sinner God requires satisfaction for sins, and lifestyle changes – the birth of a new life. Thus, it is additional proof to the fact that, in Eastern Orthodoxy, salvation and sin are conceived in moral terms, while in Roman Catholicism both notions are conceived legally.
In conclusion, we have observed Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Christianity with many details, especially dwelling on their different views of sin and salvation.
Formal Research Proposals and Business Proposals
It is known that today, a great deal of different documents are produces by the professionals of different levels in all the spheres of human activity, ranging from business organizations to scientific institutions. The proposals take a special place in documentation as they have the major task – to define and describe some problem which prevents successful achievement of organization’s goals, and to represent the appropriate solution to the discussed problem. Although both the formal research proposal and business proposal have a lot of common goals, there are certain differences between them.
My goal in this paper is to compare and contrast the theoretical and practical differences between the formal research proposals and business proposals.
It is known that both the formal research proposals and business proposals have the same structural components which assign them to the proposal documentation. As a rule, any proposal document has the following structure: the introduction, the problem statement, the objectives and solutions sections, budget section, the schedule and resources sections, the management section and conclusion section. In the introduction section, the basic information concerning the problem is represented. The problem statement explains the necessity to solve the problem. The major goals of the proposal are represented in the objectives section. The appropriate materials and time necessary for this operation are represented in the schedule and resources sections. (Anderson, 1994, p.282) However, there may be some differences in the construction of the sections because the business proposal represents some product while the formal research proposal represents some experiment.
Moreover, both the formal research proposal and business proposal have the same features which include a title page, an index page where all the sections of the document are indicated, and an appendix where some appropriate information is represented. However, there may be some differences in the construction of the appendix section, because the business proposal usually has some graphs and tables in appendix while the formal research proposal represents some additional data in the written form. One more difference is that the formal research proposal has a literature review section where the author represents information concerning the past research related to the theme of the proposal.
One more important commonality is that both proposals have the same methods of presentation to the audience. According to the established rules, both types of proposals can be presented in the printed format as a document and orally to the concerned audience. It is also known that the person who presents his proposal to the audience is allowed to answer the questions of the audience after presenting the major sections of the document. (McGranaghan, 2009, para.1)
One big difference between the formal research proposal and business proposal is connected with their overall use. The formal research proposal is used to decide whether the company should develop a new product. It refers to conducting an experiment under controlled conditions in order to discover, demonstrate or test a hypothesis. However, business proposal is used to find the best way to enter the market when the product has already been developed. In other words, business proposal is considered the systematic gathering of information with the intent of arriving at an optimal solution for a given problem or situation. (Jane, 2011, para.4)
Moreover, there are certain capabilities of the business proposal in contrast with the capabilities of the formal research proposal. As the business proposals are written offers from the seller to the prospective buyers, they play a key role in the complex sales process. In addition, the business proposals inform the buyers of the seller’s capabilities in satisfying the needs and requirements concerning the product. It is known that if a business proposal is successful, it results in successful sales. In this case, both parties, the buyers and the seller, achieve their goals. (Reeds, 2002, p.21)
Any formal research proposal, unlike business proposal, is connected with some research or some experiment, and the researcher should pay special attention to the appropriate techniques which will be used in the process of the research. Moreover, the formal research proposal includes the preliminary discussions which are conducted in order to make sure that both the author of the formal research proposal and the decision maker understand each other and are ready to spend both their time and money to the project. (Anderson, 1994, p.172)
In conclusion, it is necessary to say that both the formal research proposal and business proposal are significant documents which are very effective in conditions of the competitive business environment. It is very important for any professional to create strong and powerful proposals which will be able to match well with the company’s needs and the customers’ requirements.
The PMBOK Guide (1996) defines stakeholders as”… individuals and organizations who are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected as a result of project execution or successful project completion.” Nowadays, project stakeholders play an important role in the accomplishment of a project. The attitude to a project by stakeholders can exert different levels of influences. In this part, we will focus on the stakeholders’ influences on the project in different stages of the project development.
Site selection stage
Against the recovery of Hong Kong’s economy and improvement in the government’s financial position, the government announced the re-launch of the Project in October 2005. There were many voices from different stakeholders, both positive and negative. The project gained supports from various professional organizations, which they identified the benefits proposal by the government. However, there were also many objections to the project. Some developers opposed the Project that the government should auction the land for commercial purposes to increase revenue, and claimed that it is a waste to use such a good land to build the government headquarters. According to the valuation in 2002, the land occupied for the Project was worth about HK$120 billion. The government decided to abandon auction site, the opportunity cost is very high. Besides, one of the political parties insisted the government should consider relocating the new government headquarters to the site of the former airport at Kai Tak to boost redevelopment of southeast Kowloon.
In March 2006, Tsang debated “As a financial center, we need to keep the administration, legislature and judiciary close to our financial districts (The Standard, 2006)” in his 90-minute question-and-answer session in the Legislative Council Thursday. As the Chief Executive, he is the high-power-high-interest stakeholder in the project, who can dictate the result. Tsang made it clear that Tamar is the best possible site for the new government headquarters and refused entertaining any further arguments against it. This has proved that not every stakeholder is equally important, only high-power-high-interest one could impose significant influence to the project.
Design selection stage
In response to the keen public interest to participate more in the Project, the government organized a two-month public viewing exercise to give the public the opportunity to view and comment on the design and aesthetics aspects of the four tender designs from four prequalified tenderers. Comment cards were collected for further analysis. Conducting a public viewing exercise whilst tender assessment was underway was unprecedented for public work projects. Especially, the public was generally identified as low-power-low-interest stakeholders. Taking into account the quantitative and qualitative analysis, it showed that the interest level of the public on the Project was high. According to the Public Policy Research Institute of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (2007), the greatest concern the public had regarding the design proposals relate to “Visual Attractiveness” and “Green Features and Environmental Friendliness”, and many were keen to provide their opinions on which design is preferred. Despite, the final selection result was mostly the second choice of the public due to the government’s concern about costs and environmental factors; it had shown that the government is open-minded to provide opportunities for higher public engagement to the government projects.
Project progressing and reviewing stage
In May 2009, the Legislative Council Commission requested to provide additional area in the future Legislative Council Complex in the Project. The Legislative Council (LegCo) needed to seek Members’ support to increase the approved project estimate for the Project by HK$359.8 million.
Karlsen (2002) defines that “it is the clients who define and finance the project and the end users who decide the usefulness of the project results”. In the request of additional funding for the Project, is the LegCo the client or the end user? The LegCo for sure is the end user of the Project, but at the same time, it seems like the LegCo is in a conflicting role as the client to approve the additional funding for its own request.
The role of the media
Acccording to Olander and Landin (2005), “The media hold a unique position in the process. They cannot really be defined as a stakeholder, because they have no actual stake in the project. However, the media can have a tremendous effect on the project’s outcome, both positive and negative. Thus, the media are an important factor that must be considered, which in practice gives them the status of an important stakeholders… It is difficult to estimate the effect of the media coverage, but an open and trustworthy communication with the media and the affected stakeholders is essential.”