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Today the majority of students know that essay writing is one of the things they have to struggle with because it should be organized in a proper way, with the established format, word counts and without any grammatical mistakes. In fact, students have to choose the appropriate words to convey their original ideas. They need good spelling and effective sentence flow, which should be supported by quotes and convincing arguments. Many students ask professional writers: “help me write my essay”. They seek help from well-trained writers whom they can trust. Many students visit a writing company website and say: “I can pay you if you help me write my essay.” Of course, the major goal of any writing company is to hire skilled and creative writer who will be able to cope with any task and assignment to meet the demands of today’s clients. That is why when a student says: “help me write my essay,” he/she wants to hire a professional writer. As a rule, students are satisfied with the quality of work. In case they have problems with their assignments, and their professors want then to redo something, students say: “help me write my essay” and make certain amendments.
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How to find an essay writer
It is obvious that different people have different skills. For example some group of people are very good in chemistry, but they can not remember any historic data, other can solve any math problem, but they know nothing about literature or you can be a very talented artist, but you have no idea how to write simple college essay. This situation is normal, people can not be genius in all spheres of our life… but the good news is that now you can find specials who can help you.
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How to write essay?
Here are just a few guidelines that will be helpful when it comes time to how to write essay question.
1. Allow adequate time to answer the question. By their very design, essay questions can take a considerable amount of time to answer. Earlier in this chapter, we contrasted closed- and open-ended questions, where the nature of the response is restricted or not. Regardless of whether an essay question is closed or open ended (remember, we have to be practical), you need to tell the test taker how much time he or she has to complete the question. And how much time should that be? Keep in mind that essay questions require test lakers to think about, and then write, the response. One strategy is to encourage test takers when they are practicing to plan their response by spending 30%-40% of their time outlining or “”sketching” their response, 4O%-50% of their time writing the response, and then the last 10%-30% rereading what they have written and making any necessary changes.
2. Be sure the question is complete and dear. This one sounds simple and it may indeed be, but sometimes essay questions are not very clear in their presentation. Want to know why? Because it’s not clear what the person writing the question wants to know. For example, here’s an unclear essay question
1. Discuss the impact of the Civil War on the economy of the postwar South.
This not like this question is that poorly designed, but it sure docs not reflect a clear notion of what was learned or what is being assessed. This is the kind of a topic that some historian could write seven volumes about! Look how much more clear the following:
1. Discuss the impact of the Civil War on the economy of the postwar South, taking into account the following factors: reduction in the work force, international considerations, and the changing role of agriculture.
This second example just provides additional direction, which may be exactly what the test taker needs to answer the question more completely.
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Following the sample essay is a ‘template’ exercise, where the student is given the shape of the essay, and asked to fill in the details. This is a way of translating understanding of the theory just studied into practice.
Sample essay tests. Sample essay tests require students to organize, integrate, and interpret material, and to express themselves. “Short-Answer and Essay Tests,” for guidelines on creating this type of test. Research indicates that students study more efficiently for essay exams than for multiple-choice tests: students preparing for essay tests locus on broad issues, general concepts, and interrelationships rather than on specific details, and this approach results in somewhat better test performance on all types of exam questions sample essay tests also give instructors an opportunity to comment on students’ progress, the quality of their thinking, the depth of their understanding, and the difficulties they are having. However, because essay tests pose only a few questions, their content validity may be low. In addition, the reliability of essay tests can be compromised by subjectivity or inconsistencies in grading.
A variation of an essay tests asks students to correct sample essay answers. One faculty member uses the following technique: Two weeks before the exam, he distributes ten to twelve essay questions, which he discusses with students in class. For the exam, he selects lour of the questions and prepares well-written but intellectually flawed answers for the students to edit, correct, expand, and refute. The sample essays contain common misunderstandings, correct but incomplete responses, and illogical inferences.
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There are many reasons why students want to order essay online. Some of you just have no time to finish written assignment, other are not so good in writing, but still do not want to get low grades. Maybe you have more important things to do and to think about (like your relatives, you beloved, your job). Continue Reading
When talking to senior high school and university students, we have found that while most of them are confident about the content of their various subjects, nearly all of them are daunted by the prospect of integrating that knowledge into a well-structured essay which will do justice to their mastery of the subject. Many find essay-writing to be the most difficult aspect of their studies. Even those who are good at essay-writing (and are well advanced in university study) are keen to improve their writing skills and maximize their marks.
It is very frustrating if you have worked hard to master a subject and then find that your attempts to communicate that mastery are frustrated by your inability of good essay writing about it, to put your ideas across interestingly and compellingly and be rewarded appropriately.
Because students are invariably either studying English language and literature at school, or have done so if they have left English behind at college or university – and because it is my own discipline – many of the examples we use are drawn from the kinds of essay writing set and written for English, either at the senior secondary and matriculation level, or at college and university. However, the skills which are needed for an essay writing for English are applicable to other subjects. Also, other kinds of essay writing techniques are considered too.
The proper essay writing is fulfilled if it assists students to think logically, intelligently and even excitedly about what is required and expected in their essay-writing and to find ways of displaying their knowledge to its best advantage and adapting it to the various kinds of topics and tasks which are set for essays.
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A massacre in Columbine and a bomb for Oklahoma’s city are proper examples of interpersonal and group forms of violence, while U.S. bombing of different countries and U.S. funding of many armed conflicts are social ones. It is possible to conclude that we can apply a model of violence analysis as an action (interaction) for interpersonal and group forms of violence, and it is also necessary to use a model of violence as a phenomenon of social organization, which involves the analysis of the organizational structure of society, and to identify social practices based on the use of violence, a description of the identified forms of violence and the nature of their impact on society for the study of social violence.
The next social concept is anomie. Anomie arises when society is unable to establish a framework of social norms in a society, where there is a weak consensus on values and goals, which leads to a loss of efficiency of their impact on the individual. In other words, we see an embodiment of anomie in the film, because anomie is the state of society characterized by the collapse of the rules governing social interactions and individual behavior.
It is a true that a commitment to the destruction of any and all regulatory bodies within certain boundaries exists in almost all modern societies, it even considers ‘normal’ in certain frames of its demonstration, but various circumstances and shocks, which any society is also subject to on a fairly regular basis, can contribute to the widening of anomie far beyond those boundaries, which are reserved to it in ‘normal’ society. It leads to the fact that various kinds of relations, rational and irrational, which bind the rules in some semblance of a system, are quickly weakening, fluctuating or almost disappearing. The same we can see in the film, when people are trying to have guns in their homes explaining it by the Second Amendment that gives people the right to keep and bear arms. The Second Amendment gives the right to keep and bear arms, but people not only keep guns, but also use them both for the purpose of to protect themselves and to kill others. Since there are many different community-minded groups, then the reaction of the public consciousness can arise unexpectedly, singly, chaotically, showing one or other moods. In addition, film also shows a position that something is wrong in the country, when the child can take a gun and shoot. In conclusion, there is also a good fact that even in the most critical moment of anomic attitudes and associated facilities, smaller, but nonetheless tangible in the overall scale aim at ‘normal’ life continue to exist in a society.
Thinking about the concept ‘feminization of poverty’ we see a single Afro-American mother, who needs to work far away from her home for the purpose of to pay her checks. The woman is working at two jobs, but she still has no enough money to rent a flat, and her six years old son, being without mother’s care, took his uncle’s gun and killed the girl at the school. There is no answer on the question, why the boy decided to kill the girl. The situation is hard because the boy’s mother has no time to take care of her son and, being a poor woman, she needs to think about a possibility to earn some money, but not to educate her child. Kids and guns are a deadly education, but when the mother (or parents) can not give an alternative to this one, children choose and use guns.
Actually, the term ‘feminization of poverty’ describes a situation predominance of women among the poor, as well as increasing the risk of falling into poverty more for women than for men. Feminization of poverty allows to note that rigidly fixed roles and stereotypes associated with the distribution of responsibilities, aggravating the situation of poverty and increase social exclusion, despite the changing conditions of life. In this case, results of international studies also show that gender identity, along with other types of identities, forms limit opportunities for access to material and discursive resources. So, the concept ‘feminization of poverty’ really hides universal reasons in different countries, but exactly certain institutional mechanisms for gender exclusion at the household as well as at the labor market carry a responsibility for its realization.
Thus, taking everything into consideration it is possible to conclude that we have analyzed the film from sociological point of view and have used several sociological concepts explaining their relevance by sufficient examples from the film.
The study of problems of personal and collective security is one of the promising areas of modern sociology. Interest to these problems is determined by the deepening crisis tendencies in the development of American society, increasing social tensions and conflicts, the growing role of violence in interpersonal relationships and social practices. Such processes are not unique only to American society. Crime and terrorism, unwarranted aggression and violence, physical, intellectual, and psychological oppression, the use of force in solving of social, political and economic contradictions are topical to all societies in varying degrees, regardless their socio-political system and level of economic development. Thus, limiting the incidence of violence has become one of the major problems of social practice.
The film Bowling For Columbine is a documentary, and as we know documentaries are probably one of the hardest types of films to analysis and review; it has a place because each person has own opinion and filmmaker’s opinion sometimes contradicts to analyst’s thoughts. First of all it is important to say several words about the film and describe its main sense, because it will help to plunge into the problem with more details in further writing.
On the one hand, the film presents a tragic incident, a shooting in Columbine’s college, while, on the other hand, it demonstrates a controversial, profound, sometimes even venomous opinion with respect to the relationship of violence and fear in contemporary America. The film Bowling For Columbine includes in itself a big variety of different sociological concepts which have a lot of sufficient examples through the film. There is no doubt that the film split American society: one group of people praise the filmmaker for the fact that he was not afraid of to tell the truth about the problems of vital importance, while others accuse the filmmaker for the distortion of facts, slander, outright condemnation and outrageous lie. As a documentary the film raises questions about the nature of evil and how to fight it. When children kill their classmates as simple as they throw a ball in bowling, then the world must think about the problem and do something to change the situation in better side.
As it was previously said the sociological content of the film allows to analyze various sociological concepts on its base. For instance, let’s begin from the concept of violence. The film shows us different scenes of violence and presents an idea that violence is a result of free access to guns in American society.
The United States is a world leading country in the number of murders involving firearms. The relevance of studying violence is caused not only by the exigency of a social problem, but there are also significant contradictions in the perception of this phenomenon. Traditionally, violence is seen as a restriction of freedom (in philosophy) or as the destructive force (in psychology). On sociological point of view, the violence should be seen as a means and method of organizing a ‘destructive’ social space in which the actions of individuals and society are observed. This approach links the sociological analysis of the violence in the study of processes of the organization and disorganization of society as a whole and its individual sectors in particular, that allows sociologists to study not only interpersonal and group forms of violence, but also social violence that is included in the political, economic, social and socio-cultural subsystems of the society. Using different examples, the film confirms a statement that the violence occurs at three levels – interpersonal, group and social.
Risk strategies: Discuss the differences between the security strategies for risk avoidance, risk mitigation, and risk transfer.
It is known that risk strategies are closely connected with protection. Risk management can not only measure and assess risk, but also develop strategies. Risks are created by different combinations of threats. It is necessary to identify and evaluate risks. The major goal of all security programs is to reduce risk. The security strategies which are used to manage risk include the strategies for risk avoidance, risk mitigation, and risk transfer.
Risk mitigation strategy is based on decreasing the level of threat by means of eliminating the adversary before attack, blocking the opportunities by means of security and eliminating the consequences in case of attack. However, risk mitigation strategy cannot avoid risks. Moreover, risk mitigation strategy cannot lessen the impact of the threat in case it takes place. It will eliminate it in some way.
The security strategy for risk avoidance is based on the fact that it can eliminate those factors which can generate risks. This strategy is based on the fact that some activities should be simply avoided. However, the strategy for risk avoidance allows to avoid some risks, but, at the same time, it can lead to the loss of some profit that can be earned in the process of business activities.
The security strategy for risk transfer will not eliminate the risk, or mitigate its negative impact, because it will transfer responsibility to deal with the risk that takes place in the system to the other party. In other words, some other company will be responsible for the risks, for example insurance company.
There is an opportunity to do without meat. In fact, iron can be acquired not only from meat products; even vegetarian food, correctly balanced, can become a good source of all the necessary microelements and macrocells, vitamins and so on. Iron-rich foods include lentils, beans, black beans, thyme, leafy vegetables (like kale, broccoli or oriental greens), raisins, tofu, molasses, cashews, sunflower seeds, tomato juice, fortified bread and cereals. The burdening factor is that “iron from different foods is absorbed and processed differently by the body,” as Sesink et al. underlines. Iron received from meat is broken down more quickly and easily, while non-heme sources like vegetables and grains take more time and effort. Another advice would be to escape oxalates and phytic acid which inhibit the absorption of iron; it means to escape or to reduce consumption of spinach, black pepper, carambola, parsley, amaranth, poppy seed, chard, beets, cocoa and chocolate.
Moreover, there are special iron supplements (usually tablets of ferrous sulphate, ferrous gluconate, amino-acid chelate; liquid medicines sometimes). The dose of replacement has been estimated as little as 15 mg of elemental iron per day (Rimon et al. 2005, p. 1146). Still, like any other medicines, these may have unexpected effects. In big amounts the tablets are rather toxic, so the child should be carefully kept from overdose. What is more, as there is a link between iron bioavailability and bacterial development, taking of iron supplements in fever can contribute to the spread of infection. As Wintergerst (2007, p. 305) argues, “A moderate iron deficiency, in contrast, can provide protection against acute infection.” Sometimes dieticians also prescribe whole seaweeds to compensate deficiency, but it turns out not to be suitable for supplementation as the amount one may consume is restricted because of high content of iodine. Consequently, it is much harder to keep a sound balance of the necessary components within human body following a plant-based diet. As Tommy Smothers once noticed, “Red meat is not bad for you. Now blue-green meat, that’s bad for you!”
It is of vital importance to follow the dietary needs of a child, as his organism is only being formed and his entire future depends on what he or she will receive today. In the case of RC we have diagnosed iron deficiency. Having learnt the data of various studies, we come up with the conclusion that there is a strong necessity of profound examination by physician, and further recommend Chuck and Julie to consult several dieticians. Including vitamin C, escaping drinks between meals, encouraging solid foods and raising the variety of dishes will be extremely beneficial to reduce iron deficiency. In any event, changes in intakes are necessary to increase the amount of iron-rich products. Finally, using iron supplements is not as safe as it may seem, so it is recommended to take them only under the supervision of specialists.
It is vitally important to reveal iron deficiency in time and to provide proper treatment, especially when we deal with child’s health. If not compensated, iron deficiency may lead to anaemia and progressing fatigue. Platelets begin to grow and block the circulation of blood (trombocytosis). And all the tissues go on destroying. After definitive diagnosis we should turn to urgent treatment. Thus, if the cause of iron deficiency is found in diet preferences, we can suppose that RC should be released from vegetarianism and consume more red meat and poultry to gain normal amount. It would be a normal professional advice of a dietician, but we also have an ethical aspect to take to account here. We do not know for certain what reasons have made the couple vegetarians, maybe some nutritionist persuaded them it is the best diet; at all events, nevertheless, there is a high possibility that they won’t agree to feed their child with meat. If we turn to the studies of vegetarians’ health, we will see controversial facts. Red meat is listed among the products contributing to the risk of colorectal cancer. And various dietetic associations throughout the world agree in the opinion that vegetarian diet is “healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provides health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases” (Craig et al. 2009, p. 1268). In the meantime, Timothy J. Key with colleagues conducted comparative analysis of the mortality rates among vegetarians and meat-eaters and found out that “mortality from ischemic heart disease was 30% lower among vegetarian men and 20% lower among vegetarian women than in non-vegetarians” (Key et al. 2002, p. 516). Next, a group of researchers guided by G. K. Davey conducted a study among 33 883 meat-eaters and 31 546 non meat-eaters in the UK in order to analyse the lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes among these two groups. It has been revealed that vegetarians usually have lower body mass index, hypertension, less incidence of heart disease and lower levels of cholesterol, lower accidence of type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and dementias (Davey et al. 2003, p. 260). But at the same time it has been supposed that such outcomes are also connected with other specific indications of better lifestyles. “British vegetarians have low mortality compared with the general population,” Key et al. (2003, 533S) notes, “Their death rates are similar to those of comparable non-vegetarians, suggesting that much of this benefit may be attributed to non-dietary lifestyle factors such as a low prevalence of smoking and a generally high socio-economic status, or to aspects of the diet other than the avoidance of meat and fish.” Besides, other studies do not reveal the correlation between the rates of diseases and diet (for example, no significant difference for cerebrovascular disease, breast cancer, or prostate cancer, stomach and colorectal cancer). So, while plant-based diets really “offer lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein, and higher levels of carbohydrates, fibre, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and phytochemicals” (Appleby et al. 1998, 455), still it should not be accepted as a panacea or insurance against all the illnesses. Even if we take it for granted that adults following a high plant-food, low meat diet pattern experience essential or marginally essential decreases in mortality risk in comparison with other patterns of intake (as the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, and Institute of Physiological Chemistry persuade us), we should remember that the length of life is not the same as the quality of life. Like any other kind of restrictions, this diet needs a rational, seriously weighed approach. It would be rational to share those facts with Chuck and Julie, as they should be aware of all the risks they are taking.
As for our case, we have no reasons to suspect fever in RC, as she doesn’t have temperature or other corresponding symptoms. It also doesn’t look like inner bleeding and the most probable reason is her diet. Despite the facts taken from the overall individual clinical situation, we should certainly get the evidence to be convinced and for that we need to take all the necessary tests to have all the grounds to exclude all the other causes except inadequate intake of iron.
Coming up with diagnostics, we should first and foremost take a full blood count (FBC) to check the state of blood and its main components: white blood cells (leukocytes), red blood cells (erythrocytes), and platelets (thrombocytes) and the amount of haemoglobin in particular. The number, size and proportions of red blood cells are estimated. Microcytic anaemia is usually revealed by this test through low serum ferritin, serum iron and high total iron binding capacity (Hardison 1996, p. 5676). To make sure there is no gastrointestinal bleeding, we need to take the fecal occult blood test and probably support them with endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. The cause of anaemia is also defined by reticulocyte count. The overall store of iron is assessed by ferritin level test. Fortunately, we do not trace inflammatory condition; otherwise it would interfere with adequate assessment of serum ferritin.
Social groups at risk or iron deficiency in the UK
As we have already mentioned, iron deficiency is a widely spread disease worldwide, but still there are certain groups under greater risks of becoming victims to this problem. According to the investigation conducted by the Department of Health in 2007, the most predisposed groups in Britain are children and pre-menopausal women. Most of all the risk is high for those who follow the vegetarian diet. It is becoming more and more popular in the United Kingdom. As it has been published in the Public Attitudes to Food survey 2009, 3% of respondents were completely vegetarian, and 5% were partly vegetarian. In other surveys the amount of vegetarians is estimated as about four million people. In fact, the tendency is twicemore referring to women than men. According to the data from the Yankelovich Research Organisation, in 2002 “of the 12.4 million people who call themselves vegetarian, 68% are female, while only 32% are male” (Barr 2002, 356). What is more, the United Kingdom is reported to be the third in the rate of vegetarianism through the European Union (by the data of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada). Hence we can make conclusion that the risk of iron deficiency is rather high for the population of the UK. The situation is especially dangerous for children, as they have increased needs for iron while growing. Babies, toddlers, preschoolers and teenagers make up the biggest group of risk if their diets are inadequate.
Thou shouldst eat to live; not live to eat. This old commonly known saying by the great Greek philosopher Socrates is often accepted as something trivial and not worthy of attention in our days. Endless gluttony, junk food, artificial substances to substitute natural taste, and a lot of products contributing as much as nothing to nourishing our bodies have become the global scourge of our society. On the other hand, surprisingly, being too much obsessed about healthy eating sometimes turns out to be dangerous as well. It goes without saying that healthy eating is half way to being healthy and to live a long life. The matter is, we do not always realize it clearly what the meaning of eating healthily is. Well, we are proposed a good deal of solutions from the fictitious professionals, nutritionists and dieticians. Mass media tend to know everything. But in reality they are far from being the best advisors. Being oppressed by tons of frightening information on the quality of food we are disposed to at the moment, many people are brought to unbalanced decisions. And thus, trying to escape the risks they end up denying vitally important ingredients. They have quite adequate reasoning for their chosen life styles, but they actually do eat to live, not because we like to do eat. And choosing a diet is not the same as choosing clothes: if I don’t like skirts, I will wear jeans and feel good. This logic, unfortunately, will not fight. There are a lot of vitally important substances we can acquire nowhere but from food; otherwise we can do things much worse eventually and in a desperate rush for health we can just lose it on the way.
Clinical Condition of the Child
Above all other diets, vegetarianism is rapidly gaining popularity in different countries of the world. It is quite understandable if we pay attention to the facts spread about meat and the ways it is produced in our days. A number of diseases (salmonella, measles, tuberculosis and animal influenza to name only few) are reported to be transmitted from animals to humans. And of course, vegetarianism has a number of benefits we cannot ignore. Vegetarians enjoy better health outcomes, including lower levels of obesity and hypertension, reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and depression, and lower total mortality (Appleby et al. 2007, p. 1400). Chuck and Julie also look like conscious humans, by some reasons following the vegetarian diet. They have a full right to follow their choice if it is available for them. However, they have a small child whose organism is only being formed and one should be rather careful while excluding certain products from the ration of a three year old toddler.
If we examine carefully the condition of RC, their beloved child forced to follow the vegetarian diet together with her parents, we will distinctly see that this condition is not normal for her age. She is thin, pale and apathetic, she doesn’t reveal her emotions and desires, and gets tired easily. In fact, she feels tired all the time. Meanwhile at this age children usually are very energetic, curious and cheerful; they actively investigate the world around them and bristle with various emotions (Berk 2009, p. 99). We are free to suppose firstly that there may be some psychological problem. But, on the one hand, we do not have any references to cognitive problems in the medical history of the patient, and on the other hand, as far as we know, RC lives in a friendly environment with both parents who take enough care of her and seem to be able to protect the child from negative influences from the world around.
As any political system, the normative concept of democracy has both strengths and weaknesses. Its strength lies in the attractiveness of the values contained in it, the ability to inspire many people to action for the implementation of the democratic ideal. The weakness of this definition of democracy lies in isolation from reality, and its idealization. Nelson (1995) mentioned that real democracy is nowhere and never had the power of the people that would mean non-governmental, public self-government (p. 56). According to Blondel (1972), “The appearance of new rights is one of the ways in which the practice of liberal democratic systems came to be changed and emphasis on formal legalism decreased. Increasingly, or so it seems, liberal democratic systems have come to stress the role of practices and de facto situations against the strict definition of institutions and procedures” (p. 173).
Comparing democracy to authoritarianism, it is necessary to note that since the inception of the concept of democracy it is associated with the state and, therefore, coercion, is seen in a rule of the majority over the minority, and often it is a well-organized form of government of a privileged minority that is more or less controlled by the people. Blondel (1972) demonstrated that real democracy is far from democratic values: freedom, equality, etc., because the power is always concentrated in someone’s hands; and it makes democracy somehow similar to authoritarianism (p. 137).
Using examples of two countries like China and South Africa, we see that both countries have different political systems.
The political system of modern China is determined differently. Some experts call it non-institutionalized authoritarianism, others – the bureaucratic authoritarian political system, and the third group of experts considers it a post-totalitarian, but its designation as a Communist still retain. Martin (2010) noted that “in addition, China has long struggled to find an efficient and effective means to coordinate governance between the central and local governments—a problem that remains unresolved to the satisfaction of top political figures” (p. 16).
It is recognized that China has a classical one-party system dominated by a monopoly of the Chinese Communist Party. The core of the political system, its leading and guiding force acts as the Communist Party of China. This is one of the few modern systems, which officially adheres to the socialist (communist) ideology. According to Martin (2010), this relatively young political system has proved very effective and adaptive structure from the perspective of historical time. Indeed, it meets all the requirements to qualify as such: has a high resistance; is endowed with regulatory power; uses the support of the population and, therefore, is legitimate; is highly adaptable; is very effective; has high symbolizing capacity and high demonstration effect.
Nowadays Chinese government combines a liberal economic policy and authoritarian policy, while the country’s foreign policy seeks to avoid confrontation with major powers. Gilley (2006) stated that “among clear predictions of China’s political future, we can discern four broad types: no major changes, an evolution towards right-wing neo-authoritarianism, a descent into chaos, and a transition to democracy.” China seeks to assert its regional leadership, occupying a central position in Asian regional subsystem of international relations. Moreover, due to studies of Western analysts and economists, China managed to develop a strategy to solve economic problems, including active, but non-confrontational development of relations with the outside world in the future.
Observing the political system in Africa, in general, it is possible to note that, traditionally, the main institution of the African government was a monarchy – a system that provides a strict distinction between the ruler and his subjects. Neocosmos et al (2002) demonstrated that “in a discussion of liberation and democracy in Southern Africa in the current globalised phase of capitalism, we need to start from one point: namely that the history of liberation and democratization in Southern Africa cannot be a history of anything but a history of social and political transformation” (p. 6).
The power of authority spread directly from individual to individual, without going through the specialized agencies among African communities who do not know any hierarchical political structures. Democracy is a constant and well-established institution of government for modern western civilization. As it was previously mentioned, in theory, democracy involves erasing the differences between the ruler and his subjects, but, in practice, the attributes of power are in the hands of a small group of experts – lawyers, judges, police and others. Neocosmos et al (2002) noted that, thinking about the democratic political system in South Africa, it is necessary to emphasize on the fact that western democracy and the African system of government is, therefore, political systems, which have very little in common among themselves (p. 84). Serfontein and Du Toit (2010) added that “politically the country is in a process of transition”. If we add to this the fact that the boundaries of modern African states do not coincide with the traditional and tribal division, and because of this lack of awareness of the territorial integrity and national unity, it becomes apparent how little resemblance between what is called democracy here, in South Africa, and Western democracy.
Thus, we have discussed democratic and authoritarian political systems, and have used two countries like China and South Africa for the demonstration of their implementation in practice. In conclusion, study of types of political systems provides insight not only in developing of various states, but also helps to find the key to the behavior of each person in different political situations.
One of the most common types of political systems in our history is authoritarian. According to its characteristic features it occupies an intermediate position between totalitarianism and democracy. Traditional autocratic character of power, not limited by the laws, unites it with totalitarian political system, while the existence of autonomous public spheres, not controlled by the state, particularly in the economy and private life, the preservation of parts of civil society unites it with democracy. Nelson (1995) mentioned that, in general, the authoritarian political system is described by the following features:
1. Autocracy or a small number of carriers of power. It may be one person (a monarch, a tyrant), or group of persons (a military junta, oligarchic groups, etc.).
2. Unlimited power, its uncontrolled character for citizens. The power can rule using different laws, but it can observe laws at own discretion.
3. Support (real or possible) to force. The authoritarian regime can not resort to mass repression and use its popularity in the middle of the general population; but it has the power to use force to compel people to obey, when it will be necessary.
4. Monopolization of power and politics, banning of political opposition and competition. In a period of authoritarianism it can be found the existence of a limited number of parties, trade unions and other organizations, but only if they are controlled by the authorities.
5. Waiver of full control over society, non-intervention or limited intervention in non-political sphere and in the economy. Authorities are involved in the basic way of ensuring their safety issues, public order, defense, external policy, although it can also affect the economic development strategy, to conduct a fairly active social policy, without disrupting the mechanisms of market self-regulation.
6. Recruitment of the political elite by appointment from above, rather than competitive electoral struggle (p.126)
Taking into account these features of authoritarianism, it can be found as the unlimited power of one person or group of persons, not allowing political opposition, but preserving the autonomy of the individual and society in non-political spheres. Only identified forms of the political activity are prohibited during the reign of the authoritarian political system, but otherwise the citizens are traditionally free. Nelson (1995) proved that authoritarianism is fully compatible with respect for all others, except for political and individual rights (p. 67). At the same time, citizens do not have any guarantees or institutional integrity and autonomy (independent tribunal, the opposition parties, etc.) under an authoritarian political system.
Comparing and contrasting authoritarian and democratic political systems, it is possible to say, according to Blondel (1972) that the concept of democracy as a sovereignty of the people (and other derivative definitions of the notion of democracy) is normative, because it is based on a normative approach to this phenomenon and it requires the construction of categories, according to human ideals, values and wishes (pp. 137-150). Democracy, in contrast to authoritarianism, is characterized as an ideal, based on the fundamental values such as freedom, equality, respect for human dignity and solidarity. Democracy is so popular in our modern society exactly due to the above numerated values.
Various political phenomena are inextricably linked and constitute certain integrity, a social organism, which has relative independence. This property reflects the concept of the political system. In modern science, the concept of the political system has two inter-related values. Firstly, the political system is an artificially created, theoretical, mental construct, a tool to identify and describe the system properties of various political events. This category does not reflect political reality itself, but is used as a means of systematic policy analysis. Secondly, it can be applied to any relatively holistic political formation: the party, government, trade unions, political culture, etc. Eachoftheseformationsisaspecificpoliticalsystem. Thus, it is important to discuss political systems with more details, dwelling on democratic and authoritarian political system. In such a way, the main purposes of this project are to compare and contrast authoritarian and democratic political system, using examples of two countries like China and South Africa.
In modern political science, there are more than two dozen definitions of the political system, which describe it as a complex of ideas, as a combination of various elements, or as a series of interactions with other public policy areas. Thus, according to Blondel (1972), the political system of society is not a simple sum of various institutions and agencies of government, but a holistic formation, which has an orderly internal structure and performs the appropriate functions (p. 47). There are various models of political systems. Their study helps to deepen the analysis of political life, to use mathematical, cybernetic, and other precise methods in the formalization of political studies.
One of sufficiently simple, widespread, and most importantly, deep enough classifications is the division of political systems in totalitarian, authoritarian and democratic. The criterion of demarcation is the political regime – the nature and methods of the relationship between power, society (people) and individuals (citizens). For instance, totalitarian political system is characterized by the complete subordination of society and the individual power, comprehensive control over the citizens of the state in its most general form. Nelson (1995) stated that authoritarianism is differing from other political systems by absolute power of one person or group of persons over the citizens while maintaining the autonomy of the individual and society in non-political spheres (p.78). And finally, democracy is characterized by control of the society (large majority) over the government.
Moreover, if the person has autonomy, rights and freedoms recognized by the most important source of power, then we have a liberal democracy. If majority rule is not limited, and seeks to control public and private lives of citizens, democracy is totalitarian. In addition, according to Nelson (1995), authoritarian and totalitarian political systems are also heterogeneous (p. 83). Thus, depending on who is (one person or group of individuals) a source of power, authoritarian and totalitarian regimes can be autocratic (one person in power), or aristocratic (oligarchic, ethnocratic, etc.). In such a way, this classification reflects the ideal types of political systems that differ significantly from those existing in real life. And yet, totalitarianism, authoritarianism and democracy in one or another form, and in varying degrees of approximation to the ideal, are well represented in the history of mankind in the modern world.